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Glyptique romaine

Late roman gems from the territory of Slovenia

Gemmes romaines tardives de Slovénie
Aleksandra Nestorović
p. 169-177

Résumés

Après avoir replacé les régions de la Slovénie actuelle dans l’histoire du monde romain, l’auteur s’intéresse à un petit groupe de gemmes provenant de sites fortifiés tardifs (ive-viie s.). Étude de cinq intailles : jeune héros-soldat, Bonus Eventus, dauphin, colombe, lièvre. Il s’agit de gemmes plus anciennes, de type romain, des iie-iiie s., à l’exception d’un grenat byzantin.

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Texte intégral

1After the peak of the roman production of gems was reached in the 2nd-3rd c. AD, there is a marked decline in Roman glyptics from the 4th c. AD onwards. The decline of glyptics was linked to the political changes in the Roman state, the economic weakness of the Empire, invasions of barbarians, dying away of the trade and the trade routs. Luxurious products became rare and reachable in the bigger centers. Because of that many elder objects were in secondary use. Particularly in later antiquity, there was a preference for the use of older better quality gems. Gems, on account of their durability and preciousness, were in use for a long time. The symbolic value of the signet or amulet, and the material value of the jewellery into which they were set, further ensured their being passed on from generation to generation. After the popular mass production in the 2nd-3rd c. AD, the ring with the gem in the late antiquity is again an exclusive product as it was in the beginning of the gem production.

  • 1 Ciglenečki, 1987, pp. 176, 177; Ciglenečki, 1999a, pp. 290‑294.

2In 4th and 5th c. AD the migrations of barbarians, completely change the settlement pattern at the territory of the present day Slovenia. Cities are dying away and the population mooved to the hill-top strongholds. Through the time the fortifications were settled permanently and additionally fortified, more permanent buildings were constructed, often built of stone. Fortified hill-top settlements represent the most significant element of the settlement pattern during the Late Antiquity. Most frequently they are situated in remote and hardly accessible regions of Slovenia.1 In the article an interesting group of gems discovered in the fortified hill-top settlements from the present day Slovenia will be presented. Late antique gems are rare, but very heterogeneous in origin and style. They reflect new ways of production and distribution of gems.

  • 2 Šašel Kos, 1999, pp. 186, 188.
  • 3 Nestorović, 2009, p. 361.
  • 4 Guiraud, 1988.

3Slovenia is situated in hinterland of the north Mediterranean, on the territory of the easiest passage from the Pannonian Plain towards Apennine Peninsula. The passage in known from the prehistory and it is notable in the course of the prehistoric routs like Amber Road and in the myths like that of Argonauts. The crucial moment which has connected this territory with the growing Roman State was the establishment of Aquileia. From there the Roman influences were spread to the aboriginal tribes. The oldest settlements in territory of present day Slovenia are closely connected to Aquileia.2 Later the territory of the present day Slovenia was a part of Regio X Venetia et Histria and provinces Noricum in Pannonia. Important centers were colonies Emona, Celeia and Petoviona. In these cities most of the gems were found, but they were found also along the communications – roads and rivers (fig. 1). They were found in different archaeological contexts – settlements, graves, hoards…. Ancient gems began to appear between centuries 2nd-1st BC. Their quantity then increased up till the 2nd–3rd c. AD, when the peak was reached; from the 3rd c. AD onwards, there was a marked decline in the production of gems.3 During the Roman empire depictions on gems reveal most of the typical antique styles. The determination of the styles follow the system of Hélène Guiraud.4 They follow the glyptic trends of the Empire. Iconographically and stylistically the gems are strongly connected with Aquileia, where they were mostly manufactured and where from the models were comming.

Fig. 1. Distribution of gems on the territory of Slovenia, with locations of fortified hill-top settlements

Fig. 1. Distribution of gems on the territory of Slovenia, with locations of fortified hill-top settlements

1 Ančnikovo gradišče by Jurišna vas above Slovenska Bistrica, 2 Tinje above Loka pri Žusmu, 3 Gradec near Velika Strmca, 4 Bled

Map: Andrej Preložnik

4From the Late Antiquity we know only 5 gems on the territory of the present day Slovenia. They are found in fortified hill-top settlements. They differ in origin, workmanship and quality.

  • 5 Ciglenečki, 1999a, p. 292.
  • 6 Strmčnik Gulič, Ciglenečki, 2003, p. 29.
  • 7 Strmčnik Gulič, Ravnik, Cafnik, pp. 81‑83.

5Fig. 2. Ančnikovo gradišče by Jurišna vas is a Late Antique fortified hill-top settlement on the foothills of Eastern Pohorje. The settlement is situated in the naturally fortified position with the good view ower the lowland of the river Drava. Because of strategic position and the material finds of military nature discovered, indicates it was one of the points of the signaling system.5 The settlement Ančnikovo gradišče existed from 4th c. AD to the first half of the 5th c. AD6. From the same periode is also the archaeological stratum in the object 12 where the gem was discovered. A wooden object is cut in the rock which is leaning at the eastern part of the circumferential wall of the settlement. In the object was the fireplace.7 According to the finds the object was residential–economic.

  • 8 According to the system of forms of gems developed by J. Boardman and M. Maaskant Kleibrink.

6The gem made from the blue glass paste, imitation of nicolo is oval, with the flat surface (R2)8 (fig. 2). The dimensions of the gem are 15 × 12 × 2 mm. The edge of the gem is broken off, but the motif is not damaged. The surface of the gem is worn out, at the surface are the bubbles, that is because of the bad quality of the glass paste and the motif, but the motif is still visible. On the ground line, moving towards the right, is the young man, with body in profile to the left. He is dressed in a chlamys, which drapes down from his shoulders. In his contracted left hand, raised before him, he holds a helmet and in his outward extended right hand, which is slightly contracted, he bears a spear. His left foot is extended, while the right is contracted backwards.

  • 9 Henig, 1970, pp. 250‑257; Geszteliy, 2005a, p. 305.
  • 10 Gesztelyi 2005a, p. 306; Dembski 2005, kat. št. 568‑572.
  • 11 LIMC II/1 1984, 527:205; LIMC II/2 1984, 197: 205.
  • 12 Gesztelyi, 2005a, p. 309; Gesztelyi, 2005b, pp. 120‑123.

7In the group of the ‘heroic gems’ different motifs are appearing. The motifs differ in the way they are depicted - viewed from the front, or in profile, poise of the body and attributes. It is more difficult to identify mythological hero. Because the young man is depicted naked he probably represents a hero or a deity. In some cases exact prototypes of the motif are known from the other sort of the art, some even with the inscriptions (i.e. some typical motifs of the Mars, Theseus). On the other gems are generic depictions of the naked youths in the same poises with the different attributes (i.e. Bonus Eventus with platter with food and cornucopia, a youth with the weapon). It is more difficult to differentiate heroes between the depictions of the youths with the weapon.9 Depiction on the gem from Ančnikovo gradišče is a variety of a motif where the hero holds a helmet in the hand. In some cases by the legs of the hero the shield is depicted.10 Motif has a defined similarities with the depictions of the Mars, that is why sometimes it is interpreted this way.11 On the other hand the weapon and the admiring look of the youth upon it associate on the Greek hero Achilles in the moment he gets a new weapon that Hephaestus made it. The motif was well known and popular because of the precise description in Illiada.12

  • 13 Horvat, Milič, Tomanič-Jevremov, 2001, pp. 317–328.
  • 14 Nestorović 2005, 33: 51, pl. 5: 51, pl. 13:51.

8Because of the bad preservation of the surface of the gem and the technics of the execution – relatively shallow and wornout engraving – it is not possible to define the style for the precise date of the gem from the Ančnikovo gradišče. Most possible it is one of the mass production gems from the imperial period from the 2nd-3rd c. AD. The best comparisons for the shape and material of the gem we can find between the gems from Rabelčja vas near Ptuj (hoard of rings). Gems from the 1st-3rd c. AD – some of the mounted in the rings - were deposited in the 3rd c. AD.13 Also similar is the gem from Glinjek, set in the ring from 2nd-3rd c. AD.14

9The gem from Ančnikovo gradišče is older than the archaeological context where it was deposited. This is because gems, on account of their durability, preciousness, symbolic and magical values were in use for a long time and passed on from generation to generation. Specially in the Late Antiquity when the glyptics and trade were dying away, the value of the antique products increased.

Fig. 2. Jurišna vas – Ančnikovo gradišče. Not to scale. (Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, Maribor district unit

Fig. 2. Jurišna vas – Ančnikovo gradišče. Not to scale. (Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, Maribor district unit

Photo: Damjan Švarc).

  • 15 Ciglenečki, 2000, pp. 150‑155, 158, 159.
  • 16 Ložar 1930, 33; Ciglenečki 2000, 13, 14, 52.

10Fig. 3. In the visible distance from the Ančnikovo gradišče towards southeast is Tinje above Loka pri Žusmu – fortified hill-top settlement. The settlement is hidden in the hills of Kozjansko region at the end of the valley of the stream. The settlement existed from 4th to the 6th c. AD, but it was inhabited soon after and abandoned after 9th c. AD or later.15 The settlement is partially contemporary with Ančnikovo gradišče and they have a similar material. In the year 1930 at fallow called Žale the glass gem with the motif of Bonus Eventus was found16 (fig. 3).

  • 17 Nestorović, 2005, 28: 18, pl. 2: 18, pl. 10:18.

11The gem made from the blue glass paste, imitation of nicolo, is oval, with the flat surface (F5). The dimensions of the gem are 14 ×17 ×3 mm. Despite the material of which it is made, the motif is of fine quality.17 Precise execution of the motif indicates that it was engraved, not poured in the mould as the glass gems were usually made. On the gem is depicted a standing young man, Bonus Eventus, turning in profile to the left. He is dressed in a chlamys, which drapes down from his shoulders. In his contracted right hand, raised before him, he holds a platter with food, and in his outward extended left hand, which is slightly contracted, he bears a branch. His left foot is extended, while the right is contracted backwards. On the ground before him lies the cornucopia.

12Bonus Eventus, deity of fertility and abundance is one of the favourite and widespread symbols of the myth of the Augustan “Golden Age”. Soft modelling, precise detailing and harmonization of the figural proportions are characteristic for the Modelled Classical Style which appeared in the 1st– first half of the 2nd c. AD.

13The gem was unfortunately found without a precise archaeological context, but inside of the settlement – it means that it was buried at least two centuries or even later after it was made.

Fig. 3. Tinje nad Loko pri Žusmu. Not to scale. (National Museum of Slovenia

Fig. 3. Tinje nad Loko pri Žusmu. Not to scale. (National Museum of Slovenia

Photo: Igor Dolinar

  • 18 Božič, Ciglenečki, 1995, p. 264; Klasinc, 1999, p. 24.

14Fig. 4 and 5. In the hills of the Eastern part of Slovenia between the rivers Krka and Sava, in the gorge of stream Radulja is hidden site Gradec near Velika Strmica. It’s position indicates that it had a function of fortified hill-top stronghold and settlement as well as a military fortification. It controlled the road by the stream and the important communication Aquileia-Siscia, which on this point leaves the Panonnian plain and enters the uplands of the Alps. The shape and architecture of the settlement are typical for the end of the 5th c. AD and the beginning of the 6th c. AD, also the finds are from the same periode. The settlement was shortly inhabited.18 At the Gradec near Velika Strmica two gems were found. They are both set in the precious gold rings.

15One of them is from the oval, flat agate (F3) (fig. 4). The dimensions of the gem are 15 × 12 × 8 mm. The gem is set in a gold bezel of the ring. On the gem a dolphin is depicted in profile facing left.

16The motif of the dolphin is of the pagan origin, but the Christians also took over part of the pagan symbolism and assigned to it Christian contents. In Christianity the dolphin became the symbol of ascension and redemption.

  • 19 Nestorović, 2005, 34: 60, pl. 6: 60, pl. 13: 60.
  • 20 Compare: Henkel, 1913, 43, pl. 15: 289.

17Most probably the gem was made in the 2nd to 3rd c. AD. Gems from stratified ornamental stones, cut in the F3 shape, belong to the 2nd c. AD, they appear also in the 3rd c. AD. Later it was mounted in the younger gold ring, that only the bezel is preserved.19 The ring dates in the 4th c. AD or later.20

Fig. 4. Gradec near Velika Strmica. Not to scale. (National Museum of Slovenia

Fig. 4. Gradec near Velika Strmica. Not to scale. (National Museum of Slovenia

Photo: Igor Dolinar

  • 21 Klasinc, 2001, 48: 136; Nestorović, 2005, 34: 58, pl. 6: 58, pl. 13:58.
  • 22 Spier, 2007, p. 50.

18Another gem from Gradec near Velika Strmica is made from the oval, flat garnet set in a gold ring (fig. 5). The dimensions of the gem are 10 × 8 mm. On the ground line, in profile facing left, a dove is depicted.21 The dove was very popular and widespread image in early Christian art.22

  • 23 Spier in print.
  • 24 Compare: Henkel, 1913, p. 25, pl. 79: 1820, 1821, 25, pl. 79: 1820, 1821; Guiraud, 1997, p. 59, fig (...)
  • 25 Spier in print.
  • 26 Spier, 2007, pp. 87, 90, 91, 92.

19The gem is a Byzantine work of arround 500 AD.23 The bezel of the ring is surrounded with two granulations in the shape of the grapes.24 The ring belongs to the 6th c. AD and is not a typical Byzantine shape, it is probably local product.25 From the time of hellenism garnet was a popular ornamental stone. It was especially favoured in the East and it was used for seals in the Parthian and Sassanian periods. Romans in contrast rarely used the garnet for seals. The most popular it was in the Byzantine period. From the 4th c. AD the garnet was used as decorative inlay in the jewellery, on the garnet gems the imperial portraits and Christian symbols were depicted. In the middle of the 5th c. AD the prolific ‘Garnet Workshop’ emerged. The most frequent iconographical repertoire are birds, usually doves. Most of the garnets from the workshop appear to have been produced towards the end of the 5th c. AD.26

20Gem from the Gradec near Velika Strmica is a product of the Byzantine workshop. It is a unique eastern import on the territory of Slovenia.

Fig. 5. J Gradec near Velika Strmica. Not to scale. (National Museum of Slovenia

Fig. 5. J Gradec near Velika Strmica. Not to scale. (National Museum of Slovenia

Photo: Igor Dolinar

  • 27 Knific, 1979, p. 319.
  • 28 Pleterski, 2008, pp. 160, 161.

21Fig. 6. The last of the gems from the Late Antiquity found at the territory of the present day Slovenia was discovered at Bled, near the picturesque lake. The location between the mountains at the upper strem of the river Sava was inhabited from the prehistory. Within the limits of the late antique cemetery at Pristava by Bled in the stratum with a few roman finds stratified above the skeleton graves, a bronze ring with the gem was found (fig. 6).27 The cementary from the 6th and 7th c. AD belonged to the contemporary settlement.28

  • 29 Nestorović, 2005, 33: 52, pl. 5: 52, pl. 13: 52.

22The gem made from the blue glass paste, imitation of nicolo is oval and embossed. The dimensions of the gem are 8 × 10 × 3. The upper surface of the gem is worn out but the motif is well visible. On the gem is a depiction of a quadruped, probably a rabbit, in threequarter view from the front.29

  • 30 Compare: Henkel, 1913, p. 25, pl. 79: 1820, 1821.

23The gem executed very simply with the excentred motif is probably late antique. This indicates a simplicity of the motif and reduction of anatomical details. Also the color of the glass is different from the gems imitating nicolo and the shape of the gem is unusual. Maybe it was made by the local engraver according to the roman models. The ring is from 1st-2nd c. AD30, and it is most probably elder.

Fig. 6. Bled, Pristava. Not to scale. (National Museum of Slovenia

Fig. 6. Bled, Pristava. Not to scale. (National Museum of Slovenia

Photo: Igor Dolinar

  • 31 Sena Chiesa, Facchini, 1985, p. 6.

24The mass production of gems was dying away in the 3rd c. AD, in this period the decadence of the glyptics is noticeable - the anatomical details reduced, the figures are no longer either realistic or readable. There were circulating relatively a lot of gems of less quality made from the glass pasts serialy made in the mould, they usually imitate nicolo. After the 3rd c. AD the production of gems nearly vanished, even the famous workshops in Aquileia stopped the production.31 Gems that were used after the 3rd c. AD at the fortified settlements were usually older in origin. A few of them could be local products of less quality. Rare are good quality gems with a Christian motifs made in bigger centers of the East. The gems from the territory of Slovenia follow those trends.

  • 32 Nestorović, 2005, p. 30: 29, pl. 3: 29, pl. 11: 29.
  • 33 Ciglenečki, 1999, pp. 320‑322.

25Gem from the Ančnikovo gradišče (fig. 2) is a typical product of less quality mass production glass gems imitating nicolo from 2nd-3rd c. AD. This kind of gems were quite frequent on the territory of Slovenia. We know other similar glass gems, that were probably out of use in the 4th c. AD; one was found at Hrušica, the other one in Celje.32 Hrušica (Ad Pirum) is one of the main bases by the road Aquileia Emona, that existed from the 1st c.-first half of the 5th c. In the 4th c. AD it had an important part as the central fortress of the Roman defence system Claustra Alpium Iuliarum.33 That is why is most probably, that the gem with depiction of Daedalus was deposited in the 4th c. AD. Terminus post quem for the ring with the gem from Celje (Celeia) with depiction of Amor riding on a hippocamp is dating of the ring, which belongs to the 4th c. AD.

  • 34 Sena Chiesa, 1994, p. 430.

26Older in origin are the gems from Tinje abowe Loka pri Žusmu (fig. 3) and Gradec near Velika Strmica (fig. 4). They are reused gems of a fine quality, wery appreciated in Late Antiquity also in the sense of iconographical classical ideal.34

27Different is a glass gem from Pristava by Bled (fig. 6). It is an imitation of the nicolo, but the structure of the glass paste and the motif are atipical. The motif is simplified and the anatomical details are reduced, the figure is not realistic. That is why the gem is probably the local product.

28Garnet gem from Gradec near Velika Strmica (fig. 5) is a unique eastern import on the territory of Slovenia. It reflects commercial, administrative and religious contacts with the East. The owner of the ring or of the both rings from Gradec near Velika Strmica might be an important dignitary.

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Bibliographie

Božič, D. and Ciglenečki, S., 1995, Zenonov tremis in poznoantična utrdba Gradec pri Veliki Strmici, Arheološki vestnik, 46, Ljubljana, pp. 247‑277.

Ciglenečki, S., 1987, Höhenbefestigungen aus der Zeit vom 3. bis 6. Jh. Im Ostalpenraum, Dela/Opera 31, Ljubljana.

Ciglenečki, S., 1999, Hrušica – vojaška utrdba na alpskem prelazu, in D. Božič, J. Dular, P. Pavlin and B. Aubelj, B., Zakladi tisočletij : zgodovina Slovenije od neandertalcev do Slovanov, Ljubljana.

Ciglenečki, S., 1999a, Results and Problems in the Archaeology of Late Antiquity in Slovenia, Arheološki vestnik, 50, pp. 287‑309.

Ciglenečki, S., 2000, Tinje nad Loko pri Žusmu. Poznoantična in zgodnjerednjeveška naselbina, Opera Instituti Archaeologici Sloveniae, Ljubljana.

Dembski, G., 2005, Die antiken Gemmen und Kameen aus Carnuntum, Wien.

Gesztelyi, T., 2005a, Jünglingsgestalten mit Waffe auf pannonischen Gemmen. Akti VIII. međunarodnog kolokvija o problemih rimskog provincijalnog umjetničkog stvaralaštva, Zagreb, 5.-8.5.2003, pp. 305‑310.

Gesztelyi, T., 2005b, Jünglingsgestalten mit Waffe auf den Gemmen der Déri-Sammlung. - A Debreceni Déri Múzeum évkönyve, Debrecen 2004, pp. 120‑123.

Guiraud, H., 1988, Intailles et camées de l´époque romaine en Gaule, Gallia, supp. 48, Paris.

Guiraud, H., 1997, Ten Rings from the Collection of J. Pierpont Morgan, The Metropolitan Museum of Art Journal, pp. 57‑63.

Henig, M., 1970, The Veneration of Heroes in the Roman Army, Britannia I, pp. 250- 257.

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Horvat, J., Milić, Z. and Tomanič-Jevremov, M., 2001, Ein Hortfund silberner Fingerringe des 3. Jahrhunderts aus Poetovio, Carinthia Romana und die Römische Welt, Festschrift für Gernot Piccottini zum 60, Geburtstag, Klagenfurt, pp. 317–328.

Klasinc, R., 1999, Gradec pri Veliki Strmici v obdobju preseljevanja ljudstev (typescript of the university degree), University of Ljubljana, Faculty of arts, Ljubljana.

Klasinc, R., 2001, Prstan (136), in P. Bitenc and T. Knific (eds.), Od Rimljanov do Slovanov, Ljubljana, 48.

Knific, T., 1979, Bled, Varstvo spomenikov, 22, Ljubljana, p. 319.

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Notes

1 Ciglenečki, 1987, pp. 176, 177; Ciglenečki, 1999a, pp. 290‑294.

2 Šašel Kos, 1999, pp. 186, 188.

3 Nestorović, 2009, p. 361.

4 Guiraud, 1988.

5 Ciglenečki, 1999a, p. 292.

6 Strmčnik Gulič, Ciglenečki, 2003, p. 29.

7 Strmčnik Gulič, Ravnik, Cafnik, pp. 81‑83.

8 According to the system of forms of gems developed by J. Boardman and M. Maaskant Kleibrink.

9 Henig, 1970, pp. 250‑257; Geszteliy, 2005a, p. 305.

10 Gesztelyi 2005a, p. 306; Dembski 2005, kat. št. 568‑572.

11 LIMC II/1 1984, 527:205; LIMC II/2 1984, 197: 205.

12 Gesztelyi, 2005a, p. 309; Gesztelyi, 2005b, pp. 120‑123.

13 Horvat, Milič, Tomanič-Jevremov, 2001, pp. 317–328.

14 Nestorović 2005, 33: 51, pl. 5: 51, pl. 13:51.

15 Ciglenečki, 2000, pp. 150‑155, 158, 159.

16 Ložar 1930, 33; Ciglenečki 2000, 13, 14, 52.

17 Nestorović, 2005, 28: 18, pl. 2: 18, pl. 10:18.

18 Božič, Ciglenečki, 1995, p. 264; Klasinc, 1999, p. 24.

19 Nestorović, 2005, 34: 60, pl. 6: 60, pl. 13: 60.

20 Compare: Henkel, 1913, 43, pl. 15: 289.

21 Klasinc, 2001, 48: 136; Nestorović, 2005, 34: 58, pl. 6: 58, pl. 13:58.

22 Spier, 2007, p. 50.

23 Spier in print.

24 Compare: Henkel, 1913, p. 25, pl. 79: 1820, 1821, 25, pl. 79: 1820, 1821; Guiraud, 1997, p. 59, fig. 8, p. 60.

25 Spier in print.

26 Spier, 2007, pp. 87, 90, 91, 92.

27 Knific, 1979, p. 319.

28 Pleterski, 2008, pp. 160, 161.

29 Nestorović, 2005, 33: 52, pl. 5: 52, pl. 13: 52.

30 Compare: Henkel, 1913, p. 25, pl. 79: 1820, 1821.

31 Sena Chiesa, Facchini, 1985, p. 6.

32 Nestorović, 2005, p. 30: 29, pl. 3: 29, pl. 11: 29.

33 Ciglenečki, 1999, pp. 320‑322.

34 Sena Chiesa, 1994, p. 430.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Fig. 1. Distribution of gems on the territory of Slovenia, with locations of fortified hill-top settlements
Légende 1 Ančnikovo gradišče by Jurišna vas above Slovenska Bistrica, 2 Tinje above Loka pri Žusmu, 3 Gradec near Velika Strmca, 4 Bled
Crédits Map: Andrej Preložnik
URL http://0-journals-openedition-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/pallas/docannexe/image/10962/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 592k
Titre Fig. 2. Jurišna vas – Ančnikovo gradišče. Not to scale. (Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, Maribor district unit
Crédits Photo: Damjan Švarc).
URL http://0-journals-openedition-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/pallas/docannexe/image/10962/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 176k
Titre Fig. 3. Tinje nad Loko pri Žusmu. Not to scale. (National Museum of Slovenia
Crédits Photo: Igor Dolinar
URL http://0-journals-openedition-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/pallas/docannexe/image/10962/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 188k
Titre Fig. 4. Gradec near Velika Strmica. Not to scale. (National Museum of Slovenia
Crédits Photo: Igor Dolinar
URL http://0-journals-openedition-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/pallas/docannexe/image/10962/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 128k
Titre Fig. 5. J Gradec near Velika Strmica. Not to scale. (National Museum of Slovenia
Crédits Photo: Igor Dolinar
URL http://0-journals-openedition-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/pallas/docannexe/image/10962/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 88k
Titre Fig. 6. Bled, Pristava. Not to scale. (National Museum of Slovenia
Crédits Photo: Igor Dolinar
URL http://0-journals-openedition-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/pallas/docannexe/image/10962/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 85k
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Aleksandra Nestorović, « Late roman gems from the territory of Slovenia »Pallas, 83 | 2010, 169-177.

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Aleksandra Nestorović, « Late roman gems from the territory of Slovenia »Pallas [En ligne], 83 | 2010, mis en ligne le 01 octobre 2010, consulté le 23 mai 2024. URL : http://0-journals-openedition-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/pallas/10962 ; DOI : https://0-doi-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/10.4000/pallas.10962

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Auteur

Aleksandra Nestorović

Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, Preventive Archaeology Centre Ljubljana
aleksandra.nestorovic[at]cpa-rs.si

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