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Le forme del vetro: tecnologie a confronto. Produzioni vitree e invetriate in Sicilia, Italia peninsulare, Ifrīqiya e al-Andalus tra IX e XI secolo

The glass in early al-Andalus

Jorge de Juan Ares
p. 261-271

Résumé

The expansion of Islam in the western Mediterranean led to far-reaching changes in the conquered societies. The study of glass assemblages found in archaeological contexts dating back to the early centuries of al-Andalus, coupled with analytical research and written sources, has emerged as a valuable resource for analysing these transformations. In eighth and early ninth centuries glassmakers were forced to recycle late antique materials due to the end of raw glass imports from the East but also, they developed new glassmaking methods using locally available resources. The import of eastern finished vessels served as prototypes of the new shapes and decorations to the vessels produced in the workshops of al-Andalus. These changes resulted in the long term in the configuration of clearly “Islamised” wares, in a different system of glass production and distribution from that which prevailed from antiquity to the Visigothic period.

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Notes de l’auteur

This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 847635. UNA4CAREER: UNA Europa, an alliance of universities FOR the emergence of talent and the development of research CAREERs. It would not have been possible without my previous participation in the ERC Consolidator Grant project, GlassRoutes led by Nadine Schibille (grant agreement no. 647315). I am also grateful for the support of archaeologists, museum staff and many other collaborators in Spain who have helped me to access the various collections. Too many to mention them all.

Texte intégral

Introduction

  • 1 The Arabic name Al-Andalus, along with the Latin “SPAN”, is first mentioned on the bilingual dinar (...)
  • 2 See Chalmeta 1994, p. 29-66.

1The eighth century conquest of the Iberian Peninsula by Berber and Arab troops resulted in al-Andalus1 becoming the sole continental European territory incorporated into the Umayyad empire. The establishment of the new state implied a process of Islamization and Arabization that entailed deep political, linguistic, religious, legal, cultural and economic changes that ultimately resulted in a fully Islamised society by the time of the neo-Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba (929-1031). This process lasted for more than two centuries, yet it remains relatively obscure due to the scarcity of written sources.2 Thus, the most helpful resource to analyse these transformations are archaeological remains. By studying the internal variations within material culture, it becomes possible to trace cultural continuities, observe changes in customs, identify the diffusion of trends, and track technological advancements.

  • 3 Discussed in Valérian 2011.
  • 4 Martínez 2011, p. 183-184; Martínez 2015, p. 25-26.
  • 5 Amorós 2018.

2The primary challenge in analysing the variations in the material culture of early al-Andalus lies in the scarcity of well-established archaeological contexts with reliable chronology. Scholars widely concur that the process of Arabization and Islamization of Iberian society was gradual and slow.3 This is evidenced in the lack of monumental Arabic and funerary epigraphy prior to the ninth century,4 along with the gradual transformation of burial rituals, culinary customs and the slow evolution of ceramic tableware.5

  • 6 Sénac – Ibrahim 2017.
  • 7 De Juan – Cáceres 2010, p. 302.
  • 8 See (e.g.) García 2012; Casal et al. 2009.
  • 9 See Amorós 2018.
  • 10 Salinas 2013.
  • 11 Salinas et al. 2021.

3The most conspicuous and earliest material evidence of the new political system are the Arabic coins and lead seals6 present in the archaeological record since the earliest stages of the conquest.7 The coins are frequent in early urban contexts8 but used to be scarce elsewhere. Perhaps the most extensively examined artifacts for the eighth century are those crafted from ceramic materials. The typology of these ceramics exhibits a pronounced regionalization. Although certain typological developments of chronological significance can be discerned, the overall shapes largely adhere to the technological tradition of the Visigothic period.9 The innovations of Islamic taste, such as oil lamps with long spout and large open bows, were gradually incorporated into domestic wares. It was only during the late eighth to early ninth century that ceramics began to distinctly exhibit technological and stylistic innovations associated with the prevailing models in the contemporary East Mediterranean. They include the progressive relevance of glazed wares,10 closely intertwined with the glass industry.11

4The vitreous materials have only recently begun to attract the interest of researchers. The corpus of published pieces is still limited (Fig. 1). The purpose of these lines is to reflect upon the evolution of glass in early al-Andalus (eighth to early tenth centuries) and consider how recent research can contribute to a deeper understanding of the transformation that occurred within the ancient society of the Visigothic Kingdom, ultimately leading to its complete Islamization. The conclusions can only be tentative will require further refinement based on future contributions and research.

Fig. 1. Places cited in the text.

Fig. 1. Places cited in the text.

The technological evolution

Reduce, reuse and recycle

  • 12 Schibille et al. 2022.

5The period between the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the end of first millennium AD has traditionally been perceived as a time of economic stagnation. Long-distance trade of raw materials and goods declined, leading to supply shortages and an increased focus on recycling. However, the scarcity of resources prompted the development of new technological innovations, which relied on the utilization of local raw materials as substitutes for the limited imported resources. The evolution of glass technology in al-Andalus exemplifies the adaptation to limited raw material supplies through innovative solutions. Recent studies on the Iberian glass industry between the fifth and seventh centuries reveal that the established glass supply system from Roman times continued during the Visigothic period. Analytical evidence has revealed that the Visigothic workshops of Recópolis (Guadalajara) and the Byzantine Benalúa (Alicante) utilized primary natron glass sourced from Egypt and the Levantine coast.12 Archaeological and archaeometric evidence suggests that during the course of the seventh century, there was a gradual rise in the adoption of recycling practices. The exact timeframe of when primary raw glass ceased to reach the Iberian Peninsula remains uncertain, but it is believed to have occurred around the latter half of the seventh century.

  • 13 De Juan – Schibille – Ximénez 2017.
  • 14 Schibille et al. 2022.
  • 15 Schibille et al. 2020.
  • 16 Kronz 2022.
  • 17 Foy et al. 2003, p. 60-61; Pactat 2021.
  • 18 Mirti – Davit – Gulmini 2001; Schibille – Colangeli 2021.
  • 19 Freestone – Hughes – Stapleton 2008, p. 41-42.

6No evidence has been found for the importation of primary natron raw glass in early al-Andalus. The first century following the Umayyad conquest witnessed a decline in the circulation of glass. Quantitatively, the amount of glass found in archaeological records from the eighth and ninth centuries is lower compared to preceding centuries. Glass is scarce in early urban contexts and notably absent in rural environments. Chemical analysis on glass fragments from Cabezo Pardo (Alicante),13 El Tolmo de Minateda (Albacete)14 and the suburb of Šaqunda in the city of Cordoba15 provides evidence that glass recycling was the primary source of supply. A pattern also seen in other Western European regions during this period, including northern Europe16 France,17 Italy 18 or Great Britain.19

  • 20 Schibille et al. 2020; 2022. This may explain the usual absence of central Roman mosaic glass meda (...)
  • 21 See (e.g.) De Juan – Schibille – Ximénez 2017.

7In archaeological contexts of the 8th and early 9th centuries, recycled natron glass objects comprise a significant proportion, ranging from 60% to 90%. The compositional nature of these productions indicates the reuse of various types of looted glass as raw material for crafting new objects. Archaeometric analysis reveals the recycling of Roman and Visigothic glass cullet, as well as coloured glass tesserae.20 The early Middle Ages provide ample documentation of recycling practices to acquire raw materials, particularly metals and marble (used for lime production). Additionally, the reuse of objects was a widespread practice. In relation to glass, the reuse of ancient Roman jewellery elements is easily recognizable. Other objects such as lamps or bowls may have been retained and used for extended periods, particularly in the first century after the conquest.21

Imports

  • 22 De Juan – Schibille 2021; Schibille et al. 2019; Schibille 2022, p.195.
  • 23 Schibille – Freestone 2013.
  • 24 Schibille – Colangeli 2021.
  • 25 Pactat – Constant – Schibille 2021.

8The end of the flow of primary glass to the Iberian glass workshops did not imply the end of imports of other glass products. Based on available evidence, it is evident that objects continued to be imported, albeit without the presence of raw glass chunks. During the emirate period, a limited number of natron glass wares of Egyptian origin continued to arrive, although this trend likely diminished by the mid-ninth century.22 This Egyptian glasses also reached other European regions such as central Italy,23 Sicily24 or south France.25

  • 26 Schibille et al. 2018.
  • 27 Schibille et al. 2020.
  • 28 De Juan et al. 2018; 2021; Schibille 2022, p. 195-197.

9The earliest recorded imports of soda ash glass from Mesopotamia26 can be traced back to the first quarter of the ninth century, in the Cordovan suburb of Šaqunda.27 However, the presence of Levantine soda ash glass in al-Andalus has only been identified from the second third of the of the tenth century onwards. These imports are found in both central regions of the Iberian Peninsula and coastal areas.28 The distribution and variations in glass supply networks during contemporary periods may be influenced by factors that are not yet fully understood, such as trade routes, preferences, or social dynamics (fig. 2).

Fig. 2. Schematic evolution of glass vessels from the first centuries of al-Andalus.

Fig. 2. Schematic evolution of glass vessels from the first centuries of al-Andalus.

Reference to glass pieces in De Juan – Schibille 2020.

Innovation: the new glass groups of al-Andalus

  • 29 See Grañeda 2008.

10The scarcity of raw material supplies fostered the exploration of alternative resources for glass production. This search gave rise to the emergence of new glass groups. During the eighth century, increased dirham emissions led to a resurgence in silver mining activities.29 This resulted in significant quantities of production residues, including substantial amounts of high-lead slag. Rather than being discarded, these waste materials were recycled and incorporated into the glass production.

  • 30 Schibille et al. 2022.
  • 31 Schibille et al. 2020.
  • 32 Schibille 2022a, p. 192-202; Schibille 2022b; De Juan – Schibille in press.
  • 33 See De Juan – Schibille 2020a, p. 50-52.
  • 34 It has been proposed the existence of glasses of Hispanic production in the first century AD from (...)

11The new type of glass had a unique composition consisting predominantly of silica and lead. The composition of this glass is highly distinctive and has few comparable examples outside of al-Andalus. The earliest examples date back to the mid-eight century at Tolmo de Minateda30 and the beginning of the ninth century in Córdoba (c. 818).31 Lead isotope analysis has confirmed that the lead used in the production of these glasses originated from the mining districts surrounding Cordoba. In a later period, during the mid-ninth century to the tenth century, lead slag glasses with lower lead content and a distinct isotopic signature were discovered in Phase I of Pechina of late ninth to early tenth century (Almería).32 This variation in composition suggests the utilization of regional lead sources and Arabic written sources provide evidence of extensive silver mining activities in both areas.33 This type of lead slag glass represents the earliest evidence of glass production within the Iberian Peninsula.34

  • 35 See Salinas et al. 2021.
  • 36 De Juan et al. 2021.

12The high lead content in this type of glass contributes to its distinctive characteristics. Its high viscosity makes the blowing process more challenging, while the impurities present in the slag result in coloured glass ranging from lighter to darker tones. The production of high lead glass gradually declined after the tenth century, likely due to the emergence of new glass compositions that offered improved technical and aesthetic qualities. In the latter half of the ninth century, potters in al-Andalus adopted high lead glass technology to produce the region’s first glazed ceramics.35 From the tenth century onwards, high lead glass seems only used to manufacture jewellery, mainly beads.36

  • 37 Duckworth et al. 2015.

13Another distinctive glass group in al-Andalus was a combination of silica, lead and vegetal rich soda fluxes.37 This innovation emerged around the second half of the ninth century, representing a technological advancement compared to the previous high lead glass group. The reduced amount of lead in this composition improved its blowing properties, making it easier to shape and manipulate. By utilizing purer lead and silica sources, these glasses achieved a nearly colourless or slightly yellowish appearance. As the previous group, soda ash lead glass was particularly abundant in Córdoba and Almería. Variations in the silica/lead ratios and isotopic values of these glasses suggest the utilization of region-specific lead sources. This glass group extended across the Iberian Peninsula until at least the twelfth century.

  • 38 Schibille et al. 2022.
  • 39 As in Sicily. Schibille – Colangeli 2021.
  • 40 De Juan – Schibille 2017, p. 199.

14A third significant group of glass produced in al-Andalus was soda-ash glass. Its local production started as early as the mid-ninth century.38 In the case of soda-ash glass, it appears to have been an early adoption of technology from the Islamic East.39 From the eleventh century onwards, soda ash glass gradually became the predominant composition in al-Andalus. The technology for soda ash glass production may have been transferred to the Christian kingdoms of the northeaster Iberian Peninsula around the twelfth century.40

Changes in shapes, uses and decorations

15Chemical analysis of certain glass objects has provided insights into their origins, shedding light on the transfer of Islamic-influenced trends and practices. These models were reinterpreted locally, and the various technologies involved may have influenced the adaptation of decorative and formal pattern.

Typology

  • 41 See De Juan – Schibille 2020.

16Studies on the typology and decorative techniques of glass in al-Andalus are limited. Research on this topic is scarce, primarily due to the scarcity of finds in archaeological sites. Discoveries of glass artifacts are often few in number and highly fragmented, resulting in limited interest from researchers. As a result, establishing typologies and understanding the decorative techniques used in al-Andalusian glass has proven challenging.41

17For the early years of al-Andalus, there is a scarcity of well-dated assemblages that could be used to trace the evolution of glass typology. The limited availability of materials that can be securely dated to the eighth century suggests their relatively small number. This is particularly noticeable in rural contexts, in contrast to the preceding Visigothic period when such materials were more common in small settlements. Due to the relatively limited research conducted thus far, it is premature to define regional differences in glass typology during this period.

18The typology of eight century glass exhibits marked continuity with the Visigothic assemblages. Glassware was simple limited to a few formal types. It mainly consisted of dishes and drinking forms, such as bowls and cups. Most of them had no decoration except for few vessels with limited applied threads and grooves. As in other areas of material culture, the changes in shapes and customs seem to have gone slowly (fig. 2).

  • 42 Martínez – de Miguel – Gutiérrez 2020.

19Among the new glass objects that can be attributed to the Oriental influence in al-Andalus, jewellery items stand out. One notable example is the presence of imported glass cabochons with Kufic carved inscriptions found in eighth century burials.42 They serve as evidence of the growing influence of Islamic aesthetics.

20Glass bracelets are another notable element in the context of al-Andalus. Glass bracelets were common in the Byzantine and Oriental Islamic world. In the Iberian Peninsula glass bangles are known since Roman times, but during the Visigothic period were not commonly used. Glass bracelets appear to have gained popularity during the early Islamic period in the eighth and ninth centuries. Their use continued into the late Middle Ages, with occurrences in Mozarabic burials in Christian territories. A comprehensive analysis of glass bracelets from Šaqunda revealed a surprising variety of origins and glassmaking technologies. The glass bangles were manufactured with recycled natron, soda ash and high lead glass. Some with plant ash glass from Mesopotamia, suggesting that they were likely imported. The bangles made from high lead glass were produced locally in al-Andalus. It is possible that all or some of the bangles manufactured with recycled natron glass were also created in al-Andalus. These findings highlight how al-Andalus replicated external trends in glassmaking during the early years of the ninth century.

  • 43 Ziryab was a court musician from Irak who introduced in al-Andalus numerous oriental manners that (...)

21During the first half of the ninth century in al-Andalus, the shapes of glass vessels began to resemble those found in the Islamic East. Around this time, according to ibn Hayyan, Ziryāb introduced in al-Andalus use of glass instead of gold and silver in the tableware.43 In this period the shapes of glass still remember to the Visigothic assemblages, but new forms also emerged. The most frequent types continued to be big open drinking forms: the bowls. As time advanced in al-Andalus, the bowls tend to decrease in diameter and to have closer forms and new types of bowls emerge characterized by turned-in rims. Over time, the presence of big open bowls gradually declined. The glass bowls virtually disappeared around the second half to the end of ninth century. The reasons for this shift could be attributed to changes in consumption patterns. The big glazed ceramic bowls known as “ataifores” were larger in size and cheaper to produce compared to their glass counterparts. The popularity of the ataifor may have led to a decline in the use of big glass bowls.

22At the end of the Visigothic period were common the goblets with solid stem. These goblets often had twisted stems and are chronological markers of this late stage. Both types of goblets, with smooth or twisted stems, continued to be used until at least the beginning of the ninth century. Since the beginning of the ninth century, potentially influenced by oriental trends, small beakers with slightly rims turned outward became increasingly common in the glass assemblages. The composition of the goblets and beakers from the eighth and ninth centuries suggest that they predominantly locally produced using recycled natron glass.

  • 44 De Juan – Schibille 2017; De Juan et al. 2021; Schibille et al. 2020.

23Glass containers for liquid storage are an important when examining changes in glass consumption during the transition from the Visigothic period to the early Islamic period in al-Andalus. While such vessels were not completely absent in the Visigothic period, there is a noticeable trend towards the increased use of bottles with narrow and elongated necks from the end of the eighth century onwards. Some types of bottles as those with folded foot, cylindrical or globular bodies, inverted pyramidal necks and everted rounded rims have direct contemporary parallels in the eastern Mediterranean and Mesopotamia. In early al-Andalus chemical analyses suggest that some of these bottles were imported as finished vessels from Mesopotamia,44 serving as prototypes for the new glass bottle types produced in al-Andalus at the beginning of the ninth century.

  • 45 De Juan – Schibille 2020, p. 62-63 (and references therein).

24As the Islamic period advanced, a type of vessel that experienced a significant increase in numbers was the unguentaria. While not very common in the eighth and early ninth centuries, unguentaria became the most prevalent glass objects from the caliphate onwards, particularly in rural settlements. To date, only two analyses have been conducted on the content found in these unguentaria. One analysis revealed the presence of lead sulphides, suggesting its use for cosmetic purposes. The other analysis revealed that the unguentaria contained a balsam-like substance made from a mixture of animal and vegetable fats.45 This suggests that these vessels were utilized for also storing medicinal or cosmetic substances.

  • 46 See De Juan – Schibille 2018, p. 478-480.

25In addition to unguentaria, another significant glass object that emerged during the Islamic period in al-Andalus is the alembic (a word with Arab origin). The introduction of alembics points to the advancement of alchemical practices and the development of techniques for the distillation of aromatic substances to produce fragrances and medicines. They were already common since in the eighth century in eastern Mediterranean. In al-Andalus the first examples date back to the tenth century, although it is likely that they appeared earlier. Written sources highlight the importance of the use of glass in al-Andalus for medicinal purposes as it was frequently cited in the medical treatises.46 Contrary to the evolution seen in other glass objects, the typology of lamps used for lighting purposes in early al-Andalus did not show significant differences compared to the Visigothic period. Until the 12th and 13th centuries, the typology of lamps used for lighting in al-Andalus remained relatively unchanged.

Decorative techniques

26The emergence of new decorative techniques in al-Andalus is evidence of the early adoption of new aesthetic and technological trends from the Eastern Islamic world. This influence became particularly prominent from the ninth century onwards. Local glassmakers adapted these trends to their own context, resulting in some peculiarities in the glass assemblages of al-Andalus. Some types of decorations, such as engravings, were either absent or very rare in the Iberian Peninsula compared to eastern repertoires. On the other hand, moulded decorations were widely employed throughout the Caliphate of Cordoba and at later times.

27The limited collection of glass pieces published for the eighth century does not show significant differences in terms of decorative traditions compared to the late seventh century. Decorations during this period were scarce, and the glassmakers in al-Andalus continued to employ the decorative techniques inherited from the Visigothic period. Mainly the glass threads, at least some locally produced in high lead glass.

  • 47 Schibille et al. 2019; De Juan et al. 2020.
  • 48 De Juan – Schibille 2020, and references therein.

28The earliest examples of clear Islamic-influenced decorations in the archaeological record of al-Andalus can be found in vessels that were imported from the Near East. As an early decorated glass fragment found in the Cordovan suburb of Šaqunda. It consists of a rim from a colourless silver-stained glass beaker adorned with vegetal motifs and a Kufic inscription. The earliest with this type of decoration in al-Andalus. It is dated to the first quarter of the ninth century, which is just fifty years after earliest Islamic examples from Fustat (779 C.E.) or Damascus (786 C.E.). Its epigraphic features and chemical composition suggest that it was made in Egypt using natron glass.47 No other examples of stained glass are recorded until the caliphate in the tenth to early eleventh century.48

  • 49 Velo – Govantes – Duckworth 2022.
  • 50 Malpica 2013, p. 140.
  • 51 Carmona – Moreno – González 2008; Velo – Govantes – Duckworth 2022, p. 4-8.

29Most likely, another oriental product found in al-Andalus are gold leaf decorated glasses.49 These are rare luxury pieces. The oldest example, dating from the second half of the ninth century, is a fragment of a beaker decorated with a golden eagle, a Kufic inscription (possibly “al-Mulk”), and blue glass dots. This piece was found during excavations in Medina Elvira.50 Fragments with similar decoration have been identified in domestic contexts from the city of Cordoba.51

  • 52 Rontomé 2000; 2006.
  • 53 De Juan et al. 2021; Velasco – Whitehouse 2012.

30Other glass products imported into early al-Andalus are decorated with relief carvings featuring geometric, vegetal or zoomorphic motifs. Their chronology is slightly later than those mentioned earlier, typically dating to the tenth century or later.52 The analysed fragments are mostly imports from the eastern Mediterranean and Mesopotamia, although a few may have been locally manufactured.53

  • 54 Malpica 2013, p. 240; Schibille et al. 2022, Dataset S1 (TM212).
  • 55 De Juan et al. 2021; Schibille et al. 2022; De Juan – Schibille in press.
  • 56 Schibille 2022a, Fig. 63 and 68.

31It is around mid-ninth century that mould-blown decorated glass begin to appear in the archaeological record.54 These glass pieces were decorated with relief patterns, such as geometric or radial designs with tears, drops, and lines. This type of decoration was common throughout the Caliphate of Cordoba. Chemical analysis of the few dozen fragments studied so far indicates that they were all made of Iberian soda ash lead glass.55 Lead isotope analysis suggests the existence of at least two manufacturing centres in the early eleventh century, namely Cordoba and Pechina (Almería).56

  • 57 De Juan et al. 2021.
  • 58 Schibille et al. 2022.

32Among the printed decorations in al-Andalus, the most common were concentric circles, typically found on the necks or near the rims of vessels. The earliest examples of the printed concentric circle decorations in al-Andalus date from the late 9th century to the early 10th century. These decorations were made locally in al-Andalus using two types of glass: soda ash lead glass57 and plant ash glass.58

33Other decorative techniques, such as pinching and applied decorations, were not significant before the eleventh century. Additionally, the application of coloured or colourless applied threads, the combination of coloured glasses on the body of the vessels, painted and enamelled glasses, the use of mirrors, red and opaque glasses, and coloured glass in architectural decoration were not widespread until the twelfth century and onwards, with only a few exceptions.

Conclusion

34Research on glass in al-Andalus has made great progress in recent years, shedding light on the technology, production, and trade networks of the region. The study of glass allows to analyse the processes of transfer and adaptation that took place during the Islamization of al-Andalus.

35It appears that by the end of the seventh century, the old system of distribution of natron raw glass that had persisted since antiquity ceased to function. This resulted in a severe shortage of glass materials to be used by local workshops. The lack of supplies stimulated recycling and, ultimately the development of new glassmaking technologies based on the use of available local resources. The end of raw glass trade did not mark the end of glass imports, and oriental glass objects continued to be brought into the territories of al-Andalus. It was through these Oriental objects that some new uses, types and decorations reached al-Andalus, which were then imitated and reinterpreted by the local glassmakers. As in other areas of material culture, the Islamic influence in al-Andalus led to the development of distinct and "Islamized" glassware over time.

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Bibliographie

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Notes

1 The Arabic name Al-Andalus, along with the Latin “SPAN”, is first mentioned on the bilingual dinars minted just after the Islamic conquest. Codera 1879, p. 44-56; Canto – Ibrahim 1997, p. 23-24.

2 See Chalmeta 1994, p. 29-66.

3 Discussed in Valérian 2011.

4 Martínez 2011, p. 183-184; Martínez 2015, p. 25-26.

5 Amorós 2018.

6 Sénac – Ibrahim 2017.

7 De Juan – Cáceres 2010, p. 302.

8 See (e.g.) García 2012; Casal et al. 2009.

9 See Amorós 2018.

10 Salinas 2013.

11 Salinas et al. 2021.

12 Schibille et al. 2022.

13 De Juan – Schibille – Ximénez 2017.

14 Schibille et al. 2022.

15 Schibille et al. 2020.

16 Kronz 2022.

17 Foy et al. 2003, p. 60-61; Pactat 2021.

18 Mirti – Davit – Gulmini 2001; Schibille – Colangeli 2021.

19 Freestone – Hughes – Stapleton 2008, p. 41-42.

20 Schibille et al. 2020; 2022. This may explain the usual absence of central Roman mosaic glass medallions or the virtual absence of flat glass in the Visigoth buildings.

21 See (e.g.) De Juan – Schibille – Ximénez 2017.

22 De Juan – Schibille 2021; Schibille et al. 2019; Schibille 2022, p.195.

23 Schibille – Freestone 2013.

24 Schibille – Colangeli 2021.

25 Pactat – Constant – Schibille 2021.

26 Schibille et al. 2018.

27 Schibille et al. 2020.

28 De Juan et al. 2018; 2021; Schibille 2022, p. 195-197.

29 See Grañeda 2008.

30 Schibille et al. 2022.

31 Schibille et al. 2020.

32 Schibille 2022a, p. 192-202; Schibille 2022b; De Juan – Schibille in press.

33 See De Juan – Schibille 2020a, p. 50-52.

34 It has been proposed the existence of glasses of Hispanic production in the first century AD from the references of Pliny the Elder (XXXVI, 66), but so far there are no conclusive evidence.

35 See Salinas et al. 2021.

36 De Juan et al. 2021.

37 Duckworth et al. 2015.

38 Schibille et al. 2022.

39 As in Sicily. Schibille – Colangeli 2021.

40 De Juan – Schibille 2017, p. 199.

41 See De Juan – Schibille 2020.

42 Martínez – de Miguel – Gutiérrez 2020.

43 Ziryab was a court musician from Irak who introduced in al-Andalus numerous oriental manners that prevailed at the court of the caliph of Baghdad. See Ibn Ḥayyān, Crónica.

44 De Juan – Schibille 2017; De Juan et al. 2021; Schibille et al. 2020.

45 De Juan – Schibille 2020, p. 62-63 (and references therein).

46 See De Juan – Schibille 2018, p. 478-480.

47 Schibille et al. 2019; De Juan et al. 2020.

48 De Juan – Schibille 2020, and references therein.

49 Velo – Govantes – Duckworth 2022.

50 Malpica 2013, p. 140.

51 Carmona – Moreno – González 2008; Velo – Govantes – Duckworth 2022, p. 4-8.

52 Rontomé 2000; 2006.

53 De Juan et al. 2021; Velasco – Whitehouse 2012.

54 Malpica 2013, p. 240; Schibille et al. 2022, Dataset S1 (TM212).

55 De Juan et al. 2021; Schibille et al. 2022; De Juan – Schibille in press.

56 Schibille 2022a, Fig. 63 and 68.

57 De Juan et al. 2021.

58 Schibille et al. 2022.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Fig. 1. Places cited in the text.
URL http://0-journals-openedition-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/mefrm/docannexe/image/12393/img-1.png
Fichier image/png, 278k
Titre Fig. 2. Schematic evolution of glass vessels from the first centuries of al-Andalus.
Crédits Reference to glass pieces in De Juan – Schibille 2020.
URL http://0-journals-openedition-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/mefrm/docannexe/image/12393/img-2.png
Fichier image/png, 254k
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Jorge de Juan Ares, « The glass in early al-Andalus »Mélanges de l’École française de Rome - Moyen Âge, 135-2 | 2023, 261-271.

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Jorge de Juan Ares, « The glass in early al-Andalus »Mélanges de l’École française de Rome - Moyen Âge [En ligne], 135-2 | 2023, mis en ligne le 01 mars 2024, consulté le 22 juin 2024. URL : http://0-journals-openedition-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/mefrm/12393 ; DOI : https://0-doi-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/10.4000/mefrm.12393

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Jorge de Juan Ares

Universidad Complutense de Madrid – UNIARQ, Universidade de Lisboa, jordejua@ucm.es

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