Navigation – Plan du site

AccueilNuméros55“How glad to be on a ship.” Lawre...

“How glad to be on a ship.” Lawrence’s Savage Pilgrimage at Sea

Jonathan Long

Résumé

As Lawrence wrote in Sea and Sardinia (1921) “How glad to be on a ship! What a golden hour for the heart of man! Ah if one could sail for ever, on a small quiet, lonely ship, from land to land and isle to isle, and saunter through the spaces of this lovely world, always through the spaces of this lovely world.” (SS 47.27 – 31). He wrote those words as a record of his response to the sea on a steamer travelling from Sicily to Sardinia in January 1921. They are a good example of how conflicted he was about his use of technology. This essay will outline Lawrence’s principal journeys by sea, a significant feature of and expense in his life, how they were necessary to enable him to undertake his “savage pilgrimage” and what Lawrence wrote on board ship, providing examples of the people he met on board ship, and how they and his experience of the sea as opposed to his experiences on land helped or featured in some of his best work.

Haut de page

Texte intégral

  • 1 1906 at Mablethorpe, Lincolnshire; 1907 at Robin Hood's Bay,Yorkshire; 1908 at Flamborough, Yorkshi (...)

1Lawrence wrote the words quoted in the title to this essay to describe his feelings about being on a steamer travelling from Sicily to Sardinia in January 1921. Although, as we shall see, the desire for travel by sea waned in the last years of his life, from early on Lawrence had a fascination with the sea. As he put it in his essay “The Proper Study,” written in 1923, “the first and greatest relation of every man and woman is to the Ocean itself, the great God of the End” (RDP 173.3 – 5). Growing up in Eastwood Lawrence could scarcely be further from the sea in his early years and the annual family holidays on the coast, from 1906 to 1909,1 were clearly a source of fun for him, together with visits to his maternal aunt Nellie Staynes, who ran a boarding house in Skegness, from which he could “watch the tide rolling in through the window” (IL 22). His first experience of a boat trip of any significance would have been the ferry crossing to the Isle of Wight in July/August 1909, at the same time as Helen Corke and Herbert MacCartney made their fatal trip there, used by Lawrence in The Trespasser (1912), and sailing around the island: “You have no idea how pretty the Solent and Spithead are – such shimmering iridescent running water” (IL 134). More importantly of course, his crossing with Frieda from Dover to Ostend in May 1912 was symbolically very significant, his first departure from England, the sea providing a means of escape from his often-troubled earlier life. There followed many such Channel crossings over the years, as is apparent from the chronology following this essay, there were ten crossings to the Continent in total.

  • 2 See Dying Game 55.

2The suppression of The Rainbow (1915) in November 1915 had such a devastating impact on Lawrence that he made preparations to sail to New York from Liverpool on the RMS Adriatic (2L 437), a predecessor to the White Star Line’s better-known ship the RMS Titanic as one of the world’s largest and most luxurious ships of its time. His plan later evolved into a scheme to sail to Florida via the Gulf of Mexico (2L 437), but he ended up staying in England until 1919. Lawrence was fascinated by sea travel from the early days of his career, and in his self-imposed exile in Cornwall in 1915 – 17, his interest in American literature, much of it involving the sea, intensified alongside his growing desire to leave England permanently and head for America (SCAL xxvi – xxxi). The books that he requested for the research involved in his Studies in Classic American Literature (1923) included Herman Melville’s Typee, Omoo and Moby Dick, together with Richard Henry Dana’s Two Years before the Mast, what he described as “the books of the sea” (SCAL 260.3). They all contain inspiring descriptions of the sea, which Lawrence wrote enthusiastically about (SCAL 260.4 – 12), but he was of course not basing this on his own experience as the first versions of the Studies in Classic American Literature essays were written in 1918-1919, before he left Europe. His own experience was reflected in revisions for the final versions published by Seltzer in August 1923.2

  • 3 Described in Memoir of Maurice Magnus (IR 20 – 1).

3As well as the relatively short trips across the English Channel, Lawrence made numerous even shorter crossings over the years, for example for his visits to Capri in 1919-1920, 1921 (twice) and 1926, and the ferry was of course also necessary when he was based in Sicily from 1920-1922, for example for his trip to Malta in May 1920, his trip from Capri to Montecassino via Naples in February 19203 and to reach Mallorca for his stay there in 1929. An even smaller craft, a “fishing boat” (6584), was used to reach the island of Port Cros off the coast of the South of France for his particularly significant time there in October/November 1928. Not surprisingly, these journeys are the subject of little comment by Lawrence in his surviving correspondence, but as we shall see his short trip to Sardinia in January 1921 was to inspire some of his best work.

4When Lawrence left England for Italy in November 1919, he was not aware that it would be four years before he would be back, and that he would have gone round the world in that time. Yes, he would achieve his longstanding objective of reaching America but he decided to go the long way round, working eastwards from Italy in 1922 not westwards, travelling on five ships for the circumnavigation instead of one to reach America, although there were to be two more journeys by ship travelling the direct route for his visit there in 1924-1925. As will be evident from what follows, the decision to do something more ambitious and more eventful than merely an Atlantic crossing taking just a week or so was well-made. As he said to Amy Lowell in his letter of 20 May 1922 “I took a look at the world” (4L 243).

  • 4 Images of all the ships mentioned in this paper are available online.
  • 5 Curiously, Lawrence noted in his diary entry for 6 February1922 that he had sent “£80 for half of t (...)

5Lawrence’s odyssey began at Naples on 26 February 1922 when he and Frieda boarded the RMS Osterley4 to begin their 15-day journey to Ceylon “to refind the Paradise it once was” (4L 207) and to visit Earl and Achsah Brewster. He was leaving Europe for the first time, and his harsh criticism of Italy showed he needed to get away: as he said to Mary Cannan: “I am glad to leave Italy – it has become a hateful country” (4L 203) – he was of course to return and flourish there. Although the £140 fare5 bought the Lawrences’ second not first class accommodation, he was clearly very content and enjoyed the luxury on board, writing some of his most upbeat correspondence: “the ship still and steady. We’ve not had a single bad moment – everybody here on board so friendly, so good and comfortable [ …]. Evenings one dances” (4L 212) and “The boat is nothing but comfort – like a luxurious hotel this second class […] I love it really” (4L 203). Like most of the ships Lawrence sailed on, this one weighed about 12,000 tons and would have belched out vast amounts of polluting smoke generated by burning coal twenty-four hours a day, transporting a relatively small number of people. These ships were typically about 500 feet long and about 60 feet wide. Land-based technology having a similar impact would have been the subject of considerable criticism but in general ships did not seem to trouble Lawrence, for most of this time he was wrapped up in the considerable benefits of being at sea, the experience and the journey to a hopefully happier destination. As he wrote to Rosalind Baynes:

Being at sea is so queer – it sort of dissolves for the time being all the connections with the land, and one feels a bit like a sea-bird must feel […] one does not feel any more that tension and pressure one suffers from in England – in Europe altogether […] I feel so glad to have come out, but don’t know how the money is going to behave. (4L 213)

  • 6 David Ellis wrote in detail of the impact this journey had on Lawrence (Dying Game 11 – 13).
  • 7 See Nehls ii 115 – 7 for a record of her time onboard with the Lawrences.

6This particular journey had not just the advantage of providing an enjoyable new living experience for Lawrence (Frieda too – 4L 206), not used to nor uncritical of luxury, but also of giving him much to see on the way.6 The ship went via the Straits of Messina to Crete, then stopping at Port Said, sailing slowly along the Suez Canal, crossing the Red Sea (where he could see Mount Sinai) to Aden, before reaching Colombo. All the detail is of course provided to Frieda’s mother (4L 205 – 6, 211 – 12) using the ship’s notepaper for his correspondence, Lawrence clearly enjoying the cultural diversity including the “Thousand and One Nights” (4L 211) experience of stopping off at Port Said. In this comfortable environment Lawrence translated the second half of Verga’s Mastro-don Gesualdo (1923) (4L 208) and met Anna Jenkins, who offered him accommodation in Perth (xx) and kindled his interest in Australia,7 becoming one of Lawrence’s correspondents.

7As the Lawrences did not find “Paradise” in Ceylon their stay was shorter than planned and on 24 April 1922 they left on the RMS Orsova bound for Fremantle, Perth’s port. Again, they travelled second class. We know less about this 10-day journey as there is only one letter from it that survives, one to Cynthia Asquith of 30 April 1922. It is lengthy but much of it is taken up with what Lawrence liked, and more importantly did not like, about Ceylon. It does though refer to the “boat gently rolling,” suggesting that he was comfortable, and to his seeing “flying fishes” (4L 233), which became increasingly important to him. The overall mood of the letter is insouciant: “We’re going to Australia – heaven knows why […]. I don’t know what we’ll do in Australia – don’t care […]. I think Frieda feels like me, a bit dazed and indifferent – reckless” (4L 234). However, he was kept busy translating Verga’s Little Novels of Sicily (1925) and became friends with John Elder Walker and his wife, who lived in India. The two men evidently talked at length about India, Indian politics and socialism, which may have provided material for some of the references on these subjects in Kangaroo (K xx – xxi). Correspondence between them continued for some years after this meeting. Intriguingly, Lawrence mentions women’s rights activist Annie Besant being onboard, but there is no record of any conversation between them (4L 235).

8After a couple of weeks in Western Australia the Lawrences boarded the SS Malwa, heading for Sydney, another 10 days at sea, again travelling second class, with which he was entirely content. As he put it in his letter to Jan Juta of 20 May 1922:

I find on these boats one can travel perfectly second class – nicer than first, simpler – now that there is hardly anyone coming out this way. We are less than thirty passengers second class – nice simple people. – I feel that once I have rolled out of Europe I’ll go on rolling. I like it so much. But F[rieda] hankers after “a little ‘ome of ‘er own.” I, no. But I love straying my own way. (4L 244)

  • 8 Lawrence refers to this in Studies in Classic American Literature (SCAL 138.33 and note).
  • 9 See Nehls ii 140 – 1 for a record by Denis Forrester of the time spent by him and his wife with the (...)
  • 10 See Pollnitz 107.
  • 11 Frieda referred to her discomfort in her letter of 19 May 1922 to Mabel Dodge Sterne “We are om the (...)

9Lawrence was alluding to the fact that the Malwa had come all the way from England with a number of stops on the way, leaving relatively few passengers left for the last leg.8 Among them were Denis Forrester and Bill Marchbanks and their wives, who were emigrating from England to work in Sydney as hosiery mechanics.9 They appear in the seven surviving photos of Lawrence in Australia recording their meeting up again at “Wyewurk,” the Lawrences’ bungalow in Thirroul. He formed a sufficiently good relationship with them to send them presentation copies of some of his books, and had borrowed money from Bill Marchbanks.10 In the letter that I have just quoted Lawrence is also alluding to a very clear difference of opinion with Frieda, although at his stage he is sufficiently nonchalant about matters to go along with her wish to have a break from travelling.11 In a letter of the same date to Koteliansky he wrote:

[Frieda] is tired of moving on. But I like it […]. – I think from Sydney we shall visit the South Sea Islands – think of our “Rananim” on the way across to San Francisco. (4L 241)

  • 12 See Steele 65.

10On the way to Sydney (remembering that in those days the iconic Harbour Bridge that now greets visitors had not been built), the ship stopped off at Adelaide and the Lawrences stayed in Melbourne, where they may have met up with the Walkers again, subsequently sending Mrs Dolores Walker a presentation copy of Sea and Sardinia.12 Lawrence was clearly enjoying life. His correspondence at this time is full of references not just to the quality of his accommodation, but also to the wider experience. As he wrote to Robert Mountsier: “I like being at sea. If I don’t like even America, then I’ll sit down and earn a ship, and we’ll have a ship for a few years. We’ll see” (4L 246). And he seemed totally relaxed about how he was going to fund his travel: “I’ve no idea where I shall get the money for the steamer fares, but I don’t care” (4L 244).

  • 13 See Dying Game 56 and Sagar 124 for a discussion of this point.
  • 14 Lawrence’s negative attitude was reflected in his August 1922 postcard from Tahiti to island-lover (...)
  • 15 See Parmenter 51 – 8 and Foster 261 – 2 for further detail.

11Where the money was coming from did become a concern though. And it was at this stage that Lawrence’s love affair with long journeys by boat was peaking. After less than three months the Lawrences were on a ship again, travelling to San Francisco on the RMS Tahiti, stopping at Wellington, Rarotonga and Tahiti on the way. The Lawrences travelled first class, the fare being £120 for the 25-day journey, evidently too long, and a very considerable sum indeed relative to Lawrence’s earnings at the time. He had mentioned in his letter to Robert Mountsier from Thirroul of 28 May 1922 that he would take this route “[i]f I dare spend the money” and that his rent was “30/. a week”(4L 247), making the fare equivalent to about 18 months’ rent. In the list of alien passengers Lawrence is described as a “writer” and, ironically, Frieda’s occupation is corrected from “nil” to “housewife!” A list of the first class passengers onboard for the onward journey from Wellington survives, showing the company the Lawrences kept. Although Lawrence was clearly very pleased to tell Cynthia Asquith that “F[rieda] was very proud having won the whist drive” (4L 284), the novelty of the luxury of big ship travel was wearing off. As he continued: “Travel would be so nice if fewer people travelled – you’d probably hate it – a ship like a big boarding-house staggering over the sea” (4L 284). And this was the only time that he travelled first class, one of the details used for the fictionalised account of this journey appearing at the end of the Martin Secker first edition of Kangaroo but not in the Thomas Seltzer first American edition (476 - 8). He was probably keeping himself busy by translating Verga’s Cavalleria Rusticana (1928)13 but there is no reference in the surviving correspondence to any passengers who became friends, only the opposite. More than a hint of Lawrence’s casual xenophobia is apparent in his letter to Mary Cannan where he said: “Imagine 25 days confined with 60 Australians, New Zealanders, Americans, and French – never able to get away from them […] Travel seems to me a splendid lesson in disillusion – chiefly that” (4L 286).14 And he took great exception to some passengers who boarded at Tahiti, having been making a film there, some of them well-known actors: “They are rather like successful shop-girls, and the men like any sort of men at the sea-side. Utterly undistinguished” (4L 284).15 The underlying reason for his low mood appears to be his becoming “ship-weary” (4L 287) and “everybody getting very nervy and on edge” (4L 286). He did though praise his natural surroundings, writing from Tahiti that the “island and sea magical” (8L 55).

12The last leg of Lawrence’s round the world trip was from Mexico to Plymouth, commencing the 21-day crossing with Gøtzsche aboard the SS Toledo on 22 November 1923. The surviving correspondence from this journey is even briefer, consisting of two postcards sent from Havana where the ship stopped briefly. The Cambridge Edition text totals only three lines, including “am already sick of ship – mixed Germans, Spanish, Danish, English – a nearly empty boat” (4L 541), quite different from his earlier enthusiasm about sea travel, echoing Mrs Witt’s negative attitude in St. Mawr (SM 127 – 9), where the direction of Lawrence’s journey is reversed. Her sailing away from Southampton is described as “passing in a grey curtain of rainy drizzle, like a death, and she, with not a feeling left” (SM 127.22 – 3), echoing Lawrence’s words in his “very caustic article […] against England” (RDP xxxiii), “On Coming Home” where he wrote “It is four years since I saw, under a little winter snow, the death-grey coast of Kent go out” (RDP 6 – 7). In turn these remind us of Lawrence describing England as looking like a “coffin” both in Kangaroo (1923) (258.32) and The Lost Girl (1920) (LG 294.14), and the “small, rather desolate little lights that twinkled on the shores of England” of Women in Love (WL 387.17 – 19), again recalling his departure in 1919. Whilst his negative comments no doubt reflect his concerns about returning to England after some idyllic times in other parts of the world, the journey was evidently not entirely unenjoyable. In his clearly autobiographical unfinished short story “The Flying-Fish,” written in 1925, Lawrence describes how much the main character Gethin Day, having departed from Vera Cruz, enjoyed sitting alone watching the flying-fish (but not the behaviour of his fellow passengers) until after Havana when the ship sailed further north to less attractive waters (SM 224.5 – 21). In language reminiscent of his Birds, Beasts and Flowers (1923) poems, Lawrence wrote:

And always, always, like a dream, the flocks of flying-fish swept into the air, from nowhere, and went brilliantly twinkling in their flight of silvery watery wings rapidly fluttering, away low as swallows over the smooth curved surface of the sea, then gone again, vanished, without splash or evidence, gone. One alone like a little silver twinkle. Gone! The sea was still and silky-surfaced, blue and softly heaving, empty, purity itself, sea, sea, sea. (SM 219.32 – 8)

13Lawrence bibliographer Edward McDonald made a reasonable deduction that “Gethin Day’s experiences were Lawrence’s experiences” (quoted in SM xxxv). For example, he wrote later in the story that the movement of porpoises in the sea “was a spectacle of the purest and most perfected joy in life that Gethin Day ever saw” (SM 220.35 – 6). The sea was for Lawrence a place where life (especially fish) thrived, compared to land where, as he saw it, generally human life did not.

14Lawrence’s remaining significant sea journeys were limited to his two Atlantic crossings for his 1924-1925 visit to America. He set sail from Southampton with Frieda and Dorothy Brett on 5 March 1924. He chose the four-funnelled Cunard ship RMS Aquitania because of its speed. It certainly did not meet other criteria he had been looking for before: it was over 900 feet long and about 100 feet wide, weighing over 45,000 tons and holding over 4000 passengers and crew – “little ships are humanly much nicer than big ones” (4L 600) as he put it. It completed the journey to New York in just seven days. Only two Lawrence letters survive from the journey, one to Mark Gertler, and one to John Middleton Murry, who was due to meet up with the Lawrences later but failed to do so. Lawrence described the Aquitania as “very comfortable – only rather too big – like living in a Town Hall” (4L 599). And he clearly hadn’t lost the feeling of purpose in his sea voyages, telling Murry “I like to feel myself travelling. And it’s good to get away from the doom of Europe” (4L 600). Unexpectedly, Lawrence’s American publisher at the time Thomas Seltzer was waiting to greet the Lawrences on their arrival, but with bad news about his continuing parlous financial position. However, Lawrence remained surprisingly relaxed about it, not least in view of how expensive the journey back to Europe one day would be. As he put it, “My money is at present in thin air, but I believe it will materialise bit by bit […] I don’t care terribly” (4L 600).

  • 16 The photo is reproduced opposite Dying Game 141.

15The Lawrences’ final journey back to Europe was on the SS Resolute, leaving New York on 22 September 1925 and arriving in Southampton nine days later. A newspaper reporter’s photo of the Lawrences survives, taken on board the day before the Resolute sailed.16 They did not know it but this was their last significant sea journey together, and ships had enabled Lawrence to achieve his objective of seeing the world, and in particular to achieve his wartime objective of getting to America. There had been various attempts at versions of Rananim, none of which had lasted, but the sea had inspired him to write some of his best fiction and his best letters. True to form, his correspondence on this journey, again using ship’s notepaper, was contrary in mood to some of his earlier sentiments. Although the Resolute was a substantial vessel at nearly 20,000 tons and a little under 600 feet long, Lawrence advised Brett:

There aren’t many people travelling, only 28 in this 2nd Class. But I feel horribly shut up – caged – in this small space. Don’t go second on a small boat. (5L 307)

16and continued that “[o]n the whole, I am glad to be going out of America for a time: I feel like Europe” (ibid.). But the Atlantic was not an ocean that was going to enthuse Lawrence in the way that it had when he had his first pioneering eastward travels. As he wrote to Earl and Achsah Brewster “This Atlantic is an unsympathetic ocean: one never sees so much as a friendly fish” (5L 305), echoing his description of it in his short story “Sun” (1926) as “grey as lava” (WWRA 20.4).

17The sea features in most of the wide variety of genres he attempted, even in his painting one of his pictures was called “North Sea.” Some of his best poems feature the sea, including “Tarantella” (? 1912), “The Sea” (? 1912), “Middle of the World” (1928), “Mana of the Sea,” “The Man of Tyre,” “They say the sea is Loveless” and “Whales weep not” together with, in the allegorical sense, “Ship of Death,” all from Last Poems (1932). Overall, although his long sea voyages were essential for him to go on his “Savage Pilgrimage,” perhaps his best, most inspired, use of the sea was in Sea and Sardinia (1921), his most accomplished travel book based on the journey he and Frieda made to Sardinia in January 1921. They travelled on an old steamer from Naples to Cagliari via Trapani (Chapter II), returning to Sicily on the ferry from Terra Nova to Civitavecchia (Chapter VII), then finally from Naples to Palermo on the Città di Trieste (SS 185.11) (Chapter VIII). In the Cambridge Edition the text is approximately two hundred pages long, reflecting the enormous amount of detail it contains not just about the island but also about the sea crossings – the quality of the third-class accommodation (SS 26.15 – 27.9), the disgusting food (SS 35.3 – 30), the cost, who was on board etc. Although the book was written before any of his big ship journeys, the writing anticipates many of the themes in his later writing about the sea. As a general comment on the experience he wrote in similar vein to the passage from which the quotation in the title to this essay is taken (SS 47.25 – 39):

One is free at last – and lilting in a slow flight of the elements, winging outwards. Oh God, to be free of all the hemmed-in life – the horror of human tension, the absolute insanity of machine persistence. The agony which a train is to me, really. And the long-drawn-out agony of a life among tense, resistant people on land. And then to feel the long, slow lift and drop of this almost empty ship, as she took the waters. Ah God, liberty, liberty, elemental liberty. I wished in my soul the voyage might last forever, that the sea had no end, that one might float in this wavering, tremulous, yet long and surging pulsation, while ever time lasted: space never exhausted, and no turning back, no looking back, even. (SS 30.30 -31.2)

18As well as criticising the train as a symbol of industrialisation, he makes his environmental point in praising the choice of wood not iron for the boat’s construction, and its durability: “Good old delicate-threaded oak […] And everything so carefully done, so solidly and everlastingly” (SS 31.29 – 30). And finally, a theme in much of his writing about the sea is its advantage as the best place to see land from: “When we came up, the faint shape of land appeared ahead, more transparent than thin pearl. Already Sardinia. Magic are high lands seen from the sea” (SS 48.28 – 30).

  • 17 Into the bargain, in the poem “The Greeks Are Coming!,” also written in Bandol in 1928, Lawrence wr (...)

19In conclusion, although Lawrence never lost his love of the sea and the inspiration for his work that it provided, having initially found travel by sea to be such an enjoyable experience with the quality of the accommodation, the places he saw from and off the ships he went on, the people he met, the freedom, the opportunity he had to work (especially on translations) and to escape and explore the world, the novelty wore off. Ships became more functional things like other modes of transport. One of his last comments on the subject was in the poem “Middle of the World” written in Bandol in 1928, from where he was watching passenger ships, similar to the ones he had previously enjoyed travelling on, sail across the Mediterranean in front of him. For him they had now become contemptible and polluting, “stinkers”17:

“What do I care if the smoking ships
of the P. & O. and the Orient Line and all the other stinkers
cross like clock-work the Minoan distance!” (1Poems 602)

Chronology

31 July to 14 August 1909 Lawrence family holiday on Isle of Wight, taking a ferry across, possibly from Portsmouth to Newport.

3 May 1912 Lawrence and Frieda leave England for Metz via the Dover to Ostend ferry.

17 June 1913 Lawrence and Frieda travel from Irschenhausen to England on the Hook of Holland to Harwich ferry.

7 August 1913 Lawrence leaves England to join Frieda at Irschenhausen.

22 June 1914 Lawrence and Frieda leave Heidelberg for London.

14 November 1919 Lawrence leaves England for Italy via Paris on the Folkestone to Boulogne ferry.

23 December 1919 Lawrence and Frieda travel to Capri via the ferry from Naples.

27 to 29 January 1920 Trip to Amalfi.

19 to 21 February 1920 Trip to Montecassino via the steamer to Naples.

26 February 1920 Lawrence and Frieda travel from Capri to Sicily on the ferry to Naples then to Sicily.

17 May 1920 Lawrence and Frieda travel from Sicily to Malta on the Syracuse steamer to Valetta, delayed by the “Italian steamer-strike” (3L 529).

28 May 1920 Lawrence and Frieda return to Sicily from Malta.

2 August 1920 Lawrence and Frieda travel from Sicily to mainland Italy.

18 October 1920 Lawrence and Frieda travel from mainland Italy to Messina, Sicily.

5 January 1921 Lawrence and Frieda travel to Sardinia from Palermo, Sicily, taking the steamer from Naples to Cagliari via Trapani.

13 January 1921 Lawrence and Frieda travel from Sardinia returning to onwards Sicily via mainland Italy on the ferry from Terra Nova to Civitavecchia, then from Naples to Palermo on the Città di Trieste.

15 April 1921 Lawrence travels from Palermo, Sicily to Capri.

19 April 1921 Lawrence travels from Capri to mainland Italy.

23 September 1921 Lawrence and Frieda travel from mainland Italy to Capri on the ferry from Naples.

27 September 1921 Lawrence and Frieda leave Capri to return to Sicily.

24 February 1922 Lawrence and Frieda travel to Naples via Palermo.

26 February 1922 Lawrence and Frieda leave Naples bound for Ceylon on the Orient Line RMS Osterley.

2 March 1922 At Port Said for two hours.

13 March 1922 Lawrence and Frieda arrive at Colombo.

24 April 1922 Lawrence and Frieda leave Colombo on the Orient Line RMS Orsova bound for Australia.

4 May 1922 Lawrence and Frieda arrive at Fremantle.

18 May 1922 Lawrence and Frieda leave Fremantle on the P & O steamer SS Malwa headed for Sydney.

22 May 1922 In Adelaide, staying in Melbourne too.

27 May 1922 Lawrence and Frieda arrive in Sydney. Use of Sydney Harbour ferries during stay.

July 1923 Lawrence and Frieda planned to take a Ward Line boat from New Orleans to New York (4L 465) but they were “all filled with Californian tourists tripping east” (4L 473).

10 August 1922 Lawrence and Frieda leave Sydney headed for San Francisco on the Union Line RMS Tahiti.

15 August 1922 In Wellington, New Zealand.

20 August 1922 In Rarotonga, Cook Islands.

22 to 23 August 1922 In Papeete, Tahiti.

4 September 1922 Lawrence and Frieda arrive in San Francisco.

22 November 1923 Lawrence leaves Veracruz with Gøtzsche headed for Plymouth on the Hamburg America Line SS Toledo.

25 November 1923 In Havana for 2-3 days.

11 December 1923 Lawrence arrives in Plymouth.

23 January 1924 Lawrence travels to Paris.

26 February 1924 Lawrence and Frieda travel from Paris to London.

5 March 1924 Lawrence and Frieda leave Southampton with Brett headed for New York on the Cunard RMS Aquitania.

11 March 1924 The Lawrences and Brett arrive in New York.

21 September 1925 Lawrence and Frieda leave New York for Southampton on the Hamburg America Line SS Resolute.

30 September 1925 Lawrence and Frieda arrive in Southampton.

29 October 1925 Lawrence and Frieda leave England for Baden-Baden via Ostend.

26 February 1926 Lawrence travels to Capri on the ferry from Naples.

10 March 1926 Lawrence travels with Brett from Capri to Ravello.

30 July 1926 Lawrence travels to England via Ostend.

28 September 1926 Lawrence travels to Paris via the Folkestone to Boulogne ferry.

15 October 1928 Lawrence and Frieda leave Le Lavandou\Hyères for Ile de Port-Cros (previous brief visit by “fishing boat” on 3 October 1928).

17 November 1928 Lawrence and Frieda leave Ile de Port-Cros for Bandol presumably via Le Lavandou\Hyères.

16 April 1929 Lawrence and Frieda leave Barcelona for Mallorca presumably by ferry to Palma.

18 June 1929 Lawrence and Frieda leave Mallorca for Marseilles Presumably on the Palma to Barcelona ferry.

Haut de page

Bibliographie

Clark, L.D. The Minoan Distance, The Symbolism of Travel in D.H. Lawrence. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 1980.

Ellis, David. D.H. Lawrence: Dying Game 1922-1930. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Foster, Joseph. D.H. Lawrence in Taos. New Mexico: University of New Mexico Press, 1972.

Fussell, Paul. Abroad British Literary Travelling Between the Wars. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.

Kinkead-Weekes, Mark. D.H. Lawrence: Triumph to Exile 1912-1922. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Lawrence, D.H. Introductions and Reviews. Ed. N.H. Reeve and John Worthen. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2005.

Lawrence, D.H. The Letters of D.H. Lawrence Volume One: September 1901-May 1913. Ed. James T. Boulton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

Lawrence, D.H. The Letters of D.H. Lawrence Volume Two: June 1913-October 1916. Ed. George J. Zytaruk and James T. Boulton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

Lawrence, D.H. The Letters of D.H. Lawrence Volume Three: October 1916-June 1921. Ed. James T. Boulton and Andrew Robertson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

Lawrence, D.H. The Letters of D.H. Lawrence Volume Four: June 1921-March 1924. Ed. Warren Roberts, James T. Boulton and Elizabeth Mansfield. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Lawrence, D.H. The Letters of D.H. Lawrence Volume Five: March 1924-March 1927. Ed. James T. Boulton and Lindeth Vasey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Lawrence, D.H. The Letters of D.H. Lawrence Volume Six: March 1927-November 1928. Ed. James T. Boulton and Margaret Boulton with Gerald M. Lacy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Lawrence, D.H. The Letters of D.H. Lawrence Volume Seven: November 1928-February 1930. Ed. Keith Sagar and James T. Boulton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Lawrence, D.H. The Letters of D.H. Lawrence Volume Eight: Previously Uncollected Letters. Ed. James T. Boulton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Lawrence, D.H. Kangaroo. Ed. Bruce Steele. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Lawrence, D.H. The Lost Girl. Ed. John Worthen. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

Lawrence, D.H. The Poems Volume I. Ed. Christopher Pollnitz. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Lawrence, D.H. Reflections on the Death of a Porcupine and Other Essays. Ed. Michael Herbert. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Lawrence, D.H. Sea and Sardinia. Ed. Mara Kalnins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Lawrence, D.H. St Mawr and Other Stories. Ed. Brian Finney. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Lawrence, D.H. Studies in Classic American Literature. Ed. Ezra Greenspan, Lindeth Vasey and John Worthen. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Lawrence, D.H. The Woman Who Rode Away and Other Stories. Ed. Dieter Mehl and Christa Jansohn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Lawrence, D.H. Women in Love. Ed. David Farmer, Lindeth Vasey and John Worthen. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Nehls, Edward. D.H. Lawrence: A Composite Biography. Volume Two, 1919-1925. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1958.

Parmenter, Ross. “Lawrence’s Brush with Hollywood: ‘Lost and Found’,” in Journal of the D.H. Lawrence Society 1990: 49-59.

Pollnitz, Christopher. “Denis Forrester and D.H. Lawrence: Appearances of the ‘Disappearing River’,” in Journal of D.H. Lawrence Studies, 6, 1: 104-129.

Preston, Peter. A D.H. Lawrence Chronology. Basingstoke: The Macmillan Press Ltd., 1994.

Roberts, Warren and Paul Poplawski. A Bibliography of D.H. Lawrence. Third Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Sagar, Keith. D.H. Lawrence: A Calendar of his Works. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1979.

Steele, Bruce. “D.H. Lawrence and J. Elder Walker: An Indian Connection,” in Journal of the D.H. Lawrence Society, 1987-1988 vol. 4 no 2: 63-6.

Talbot, Lynn K. “From Old Germany to New Mexico: An Overview of Frieda Lawrence’s Letters,” in D.H. Lawrence Review, vol. 37 no 2 (Fall 2012): 72-249.

Tedlock, E.W. Jr. The Frieda Lawrence Collection of D.H. Lawrence Manuscripts. A Descriptive Bibliography. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1948.

Worthen, John. D.H. Lawrence: The Early Years 1885-1912. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Haut de page

Notes

1 1906 at Mablethorpe, Lincolnshire; 1907 at Robin Hood's Bay,Yorkshire; 1908 at Flamborough, Yorkshire and 1909 at Shanklin, on the Isle of Wight.

2 See Dying Game 55.

3 Described in Memoir of Maurice Magnus (IR 20 – 1).

4 Images of all the ships mentioned in this paper are available online.

5 Curiously, Lawrence noted in his diary entry for 6 February1922 that he had sent “£80 for half of the tickets to Colombo” (Tedlock 95).

6 David Ellis wrote in detail of the impact this journey had on Lawrence (Dying Game 11 – 13).

7 See Nehls ii 115 – 7 for a record of her time onboard with the Lawrences.

8 Lawrence refers to this in Studies in Classic American Literature (SCAL 138.33 and note).

9 See Nehls ii 140 – 1 for a record by Denis Forrester of the time spent by him and his wife with the Lawrences onboard the Malwa.

10 See Pollnitz 107.

11 Frieda referred to her discomfort in her letter of 19 May 1922 to Mabel Dodge Sterne “We are om the way to Sydney and the boat rolls” (Talbot 111)

12 See Steele 65.

13 See Dying Game 56 and Sagar 124 for a discussion of this point.

14 Lawrence’s negative attitude was reflected in his August 1922 postcard from Tahiti to island-lover Compton Mackenzie in which he wrote “If you are thinking of coming here don’t,” followed on by his letter to Mary Cannan from the R.M.S. Tahiti a week later in which he wrote “These are supposed to be earthly paradises: these South Sea Isles. You can have ‘em.” (4L 286). The disillusionment is echoed in Lawrence’s review, written in 1926, of H. M. Tomlinson’s Gifts of Fortune (1926), where he wrote that “[t]he sea itself tempts us to travel” but we travel in a “voyage of disillusion” (IR 293.21 – 294.30). I am indebted to Ginette Katz-Roy for this reference.

15 See Parmenter 51 – 8 and Foster 261 – 2 for further detail.

16 The photo is reproduced opposite Dying Game 141.

17 Into the bargain, in the poem “The Greeks Are Coming!,” also written in Bandol in 1928, Lawrence wrote of an “ocean liner […] leaving a long thread of dark smoke like a bad smell” (1Poems 601).

Haut de page

Pour citer cet article

Référence électronique

Jonathan Long, « “How glad to be on a ship.” Lawrence’s Savage Pilgrimage at Sea »Études Lawrenciennes [En ligne], 55 | 2023, mis en ligne le 07 novembre 2023, consulté le 12 juin 2024. URL : http://0-journals-openedition-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/lawrence/3463 ; DOI : https://0-doi-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/10.4000/lawrence.3463

Haut de page

Auteur

Jonathan Long

Jonathan Long is a solicitor practising in the East of England, specialising in agricultural law. He has been a Lawrence enthusiast for somewhat more than 40 years. He regularly speaks at Lawrence conferences, meetings, and has published articles in the Journal of the D.H. Lawrence Society, the Journal of D.H. Lawrence Studies, the Journal of the D.H. Lawrence Society of Australia and Études Lawrenciennes.

Articles du même auteur

Haut de page

Droits d’auteur

CC-BY-ND-4.0

Le texte seul est utilisable sous licence CC BY-ND 4.0. Les autres éléments (illustrations, fichiers annexes importés) sont « Tous droits réservés », sauf mention contraire.

Haut de page
Rechercher dans OpenEdition Search

Vous allez être redirigé vers OpenEdition Search