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Un patrimoine à considérer

The Future of Fashion Heritage is Digital

L’avenir du patrimoine de la mode est numérique
Ninke Bloemberg
Traduction(s) :
L’avenir du patrimoine de la mode est numérique [fr]

Résumés

Défilés de mode virtuels et cover girls numériques : la frontière entre mondes physique et virtuel est de plus en plus floue. Quelles opportunités ces changements représentent-ils pour les textiles et les vêtements fragiles conservés dans les collections des musées ? Permettent-ils d’insuffler une vie nouvelle au patrimoine de la mode ainsi qu’aux techniques et aux savoir-faire qui lui sont associés ? Cette évolution témoigne-t-elle de la convergence entre conception physique et numérique, domaines qui s’apporteraient mutuellement une valeur ajoutée ? Cet article explore plusieurs expériences ayant mis en synergie œuvres d’une collection muséale et avancées numériques et technologiques.

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Texte intégral

  • 1 TINSON Teddy, “A Fashion Model For the Moment”, The New York Times, 8 July 2020, online: https://w (...)
  • 2 See online: https://www.instagram.com/shudu.gram/ [link valid in March 2024]. Shudu is a computer- (...)
  • 3 PENROSE Nerisha, “Hanifa’s 3D Fashion Show Sets the Pace for the Future of the Runway”, Elle (onli (...)
  • 4 BARDELEBEN Elvire von, “Balenciaga a osé le défilé en réalité virtuelle”, Le Monde, 7 décembre 202 (...)

1Virtual fashion shows1 and digital cover models2: the dividing line between the physical and the virtual world is increasingly blurred. Developments that might have accelerated even more due to the Covid lockdowns. Have the show of the Congolees/American brand Hanifa in mind: designer and founder, Anifa Mvuemba, was able to adjust quickly to the new situation and gave a groundbreaking show Pink Label Congo in 2020 – virtually that is, and becoming Twitter's top trending topics3. A side effect of a digital show is that it is rather democratic and accessible to a broad public, so no elite front-rows. Balenciaga took another direction by sending 330 guests a handwritten invitation for the fall/winter 2021 show, which turned out to be in great contrast with what the invitees were about to experience: an extraordinary fashion show in the form of a video game4. The new technologies offer several opportunities, not only for fashion brands, but for museums with vulnerable textiles and clothing collections too. What could these prospects of digital techniques be for museums fashion heritage? Firstly, it opens doors to new ways of mediatizing fashion (as creation), providing a chance to breathe ‘life’ into the designs and the craft. Secondly it creates innovative paths to make (museum) works accessible to a broader public. And thirdly, it could offer chances for digital restauration. May these developments possibly be the convergence of the worlds of physical and digital design and hence add new value to each other?

2Fashion differs from other art disciplines because it is mostly worn on the human body, before entering a museum collection. With every fashion exhibition comes the challenge to create suggestion of body and movement5, to avoid becoming cemeteries for "dead" clothes6. Time to delve into the topic and to explore the digital potentials for our Centraal Museum in Utrecht (the Netherlands). We did so by organising the exhibition Van Pasvorm tot Polygon [From Pattern to Polygon] (April 23-June 19 2022) [Fig. 1]. This was originally initiated by the Utrecht-based fashion collective Studio PMS7, consisting of Puck Martens (1996), Merle Kroezen (1992) and Suzanne Mulder (1993). In this unique exhibition, historical costumes and contemporary designs were brought together and came to ‘life’ through magical animations, augmented reality and other digital technologies. Where do the physical and digital worlds divide and overlap8.

Figure 1

Figure 1

A room of the exhibition Van Pasvorm tot Polygon [From Pattern to Polygon], Centraal Museum Utrecht, Netherlands, 2022. This room displays both a dress from the museum's collections and its digital twin.

© Adriaan van Dam / Centraal Museum Utrecht.

Hidden gems

3The Centraal Museum’s fashion and costume collection contains more than 10,000 items of clothing and accessories: an inexhaustible source of inspiration for exhibitions, research and the exchange of knowledge9. The objects range from 17th-century wooden clogs (“trippen”)10 to a 3D-printed dress by Iris van Herpen11 and from a 18th-century robe à la française12 to a Louis Vuitton three-piece suit by the recently deceased designer Virgil Abloh (1980-2021)13. Some of the items can be seen in exhibitions in the museum or are travelling abroad for loans, but the vast majority of the collection is kept in storage. Whereas fine arts museums can display for instance paintings permanently, textiles cannot be exposed to gallery conditions for too long because of their fragile nature14.

4Digitisation could therefore offer huge opportunities for fashion heritage. I will highlight a few examples, starting with a two-piece gown from 1892 [Fig. 2], which was gifted to the museum in 193715. Some designs have an irresistible allure, and that is certainly true of this creation. The subtle decoration of floral scrolls and bows in gold thread, sequins and pearls on warm yellow silk satin is by Madame van der Taelen, a Belgian fashion house that had studios in Brussels and Ostend16.

Figure 2

Figure 2

Two-piece dress created by Mrs. H. van der Taelen, ca. 1892, arranged horizontally in tissue paper, held at the Centraal Museum Utrecht, Netherlands (inv. 7944), 2017.

© Adriaan van Dam / Centraal Museum Utrecht.

  • 17 JONGE Carla de, De Costuumverzameling 1750-1930. Gids en catalogus 1947, Utrecht, Publisher Centra (...)
  • 18 BLOEMBERG Ninke, Uit de Mode, de collectie van het Centraal Museum (Exh. Cat), Utrecht, Publisher (...)

5Elise van Ittersum (1851-1936), a lady-in-waiting to Queen Emma of the Netherlands (Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont, second wife and consort of King Willem III of the Netherlands, 1858-1934), wore this dress in 1892 at a reception at Soestdijk Palace17. Descended from of an old aristocratic Overijssel family, Van Ittersum knew exactly ‘how things should be done’ and would undoubtedly have made a successful entrance in this elegant design. The 1947 catalogue [Fig. 3] shows the gown in all its glory in a photograph [Fig. 4]. But when preparing the Centraal Museum exhibition Uit de Mode [Out of Fashion] (2017)18, it became clear that the condition of the fabric had deteriorated [Fig. 5] to such an extent that the dress could no longer be restored, let alone displayed on a mannequin.

Figure 3

Figure 3

Museum catalog cover of De costuumverzameling 1750-1930, Utrecht, Centraal Museum Utrecht, 1947.

Reproduction Dea Rijper (Centraal Museum Utrecht).

Figure 4

Figure 4

Photograph of the two-piece dress designed by Mrs. H. van der Taelen in 1892, in the catalog De costuumverzameling 1750-1930, Utrecht, Centraal Museum Utrecht, Netherlands, 1947, p. 43.

© Centraal Museum Utrecht.

Figure 5

Figure 5

Detail of the two-piece dress designed by Mrs. H. van der Taelen in 1892, with clearly visible tears, held at the Centraal Museum Utrecht (inv. 7944), 2017.

© Adriaan van Dam / Centraal Museum Utrecht.

6What was the problem? Silk can be a strong and durable fiber; our collection for example contains silk skirts from around 1740s that are still in perfect condition19. But, at the end of the 19th century, it became common to add weight to silk by soaking it in a bath of metal salts, making the fabric stronger and thicker20. This weighted silk not only gave the fabric a richer appearance, but also meant that it could be sold for a higher price, since, unlike other fabrics, silk was sold by weight rather than by length. More than a hundred years later, the manufacturing process has had serious consequences on the evolution of the fabric: the dress became very vulnerable due to smaller and larger tears in the fabric, caused by metallic salts. Unfortunately, studies show that this is irreversible, with degradations as an inevitable result, even if the garment has been stored under the best possible conditions21. Stabilisation or restoration is almost impossible: sometimes the damaged fabric is covered between two layers of "crepeline" (light crepe), to avoid tensions, and to protect the very fragile parts, and thus to limit at most its transformation into textile dust. But this restoration is very visible and prevents from reading the object correctly. And it doesn't enable to give back its suppleness and its integrity to the fabric: it doesn't allow to handle or to put the garment on a dummy, and it is very unsightly. In case of the splitted weighted silk, any contact costs more damage and weakens the condition even further22. This knowledge reinforces the idea for digital “restoration”, as the dress can never again be displayed on a torso, but only flat. Furthermore, the gown of the Centraal Museum is interesting for several other reasons: the dress is datable, we know the silhouette and how it must have been worn, and by whom23, in combination of the dress’s unmistakable quality and the fact that we know who made and wore it, all these elements make its digital ‘rebirth’ all the more interesting. Wouldn't it be interesting to see it in motion again?

Reborn in the digital world

7In 1988, the museum hosted a unique and carefully organised fashion show to mark the 150th anniversary of the Centraal Museum24 [Fig. 6]. One of the activities to fittingly commemorate this fact was a fashion show with real models, featuring museum garments from the period 1838-1939. A risky event: extra precautions had to prevent the costumes from suffering from being worn. "After all, it is our responsibility to pass everything on to people after us as pristine as possible," wrote Hanneke Adriaans, the costume curator at that time. However special it must have been to see the costumes in motion, such a show is unthinkable today. It would put these vulnerable pieces at too great a risk of being damaged. Thanks to the current technologies, other solutions can give an impression of movement25, but without damaging the pieces… Today’s museum fashion show is digital. Studio PMS has brought life and movement back to ‘static’ garments. In the Van Pasvorm tot Polygon [From Pattern to Polygon] exhibition, one can see the historical dress Elise van Ittersum once wore ‘walk’ in a digital catwalk show [Fig. 7], accompanied by a contemporary outfit by Bas Kosters (born 1977), and a pinkish red 18th century habit à la française followed by a silicon dress by Aico Dinkla (born 1974), among other fashion objects.

Figure 6

Figure 6

Costume show organized by the Centraal Museum Utrecht (Netherlands) in 1988 to celebrate the museum's 150th anniversary.

© Unknown photographer / Centraal Museum Utrecht.

Figure 7

Figure 7

Fashion show of digitized garments from the fashion collection of the Centraal Museum Utrecht (Netherlands) created by Studio PMS, 2022.

© Studio PMS.

Craftmanship in the 21st century

  • 26 BLOEMBERG Ninke, The New Craftmanship Iris van Herpen, 2001, op. cit., p. 41.
  • 27 “Iris van Herpen: Het proces van de vervaardiging een 3D ontwerp / Rapid Prototyping”, video, 13’’ (...)
  • 28 Particle distance refers to the average distance between the points that make up a Garment Pattern(...)

8Anyone who thinks that creating a digital twin of an object can be done at the click of a button is in for a surprise. This also applies to Iris van Herpen's (born 1984) 3D printed designs. Over a decade ago, rapid prototyping seemed to be one of the promising techniques for this futuristic couture 26. But this 'new crafts' turned out to also require a lot of time and manual know-how, words that used to refer to work of artisans and less to new technologies27. To give insight in the processes, the Van Pasvorm tot Polygon [From Pattern to Polygon] exhibition provides behind-the-scenes access to digital design, a world of ‘particle distance’ and rendering hours28. Where traditional fashion designers spend hours drawing patterns, draping fabric (moulage), fitting blind zips or sewing elaborate embroidery. Digital designers also spend countless hours in conceptualisation and computer work: the drape of fabrics must be adapted to the avatar (the virtual wearer), materials are thickened and provided with the right patterns, sheen, embroidery and finishes [Fig. 8].

Figure 8

Figure 8

The 3D digitization process of a hat from the museum's collection next to the original, held at the Centraal Museum Utrecht (inv. 32949).

© Suzanne Mulder (Centraal Museum Utrecht).

9In brief, there are three methods of building three-dimensional computer models: through 3D scanning, 360° photography and polygon modelling. With the last approach the designer draws a spatial ‘net’, called a polygonal geometric figure, made up of numerous dots connected by lines on the computer to recreate the physical object29. Every adjustment of the reconstructed model requires a time-consuming recalculation. To allow a single detailed design to move for just three seconds requires no less than 48 hours of computation time, known as ‘rendering’. In terms of time and technique very similar to the process of pattern drawing, but with other tools and a different language.

What is ‘real’?

  • 30 KENNEDY Joan, “3Dlook Launches New Virtual Fitting Room Tool”, Business of Fashion, 29 March 2022, (...)
  • 31 See online: https://www.thefabricant.com/ [link valid in March 2024].

10What makes the cooperation with Studio PMS and the museum distinctive, is the presence and use of existing objects. They experimented on a small scale with a virtual fitting room, using shoes of our collection. There is a contrast with other virtual fitting rooms, varying from digitally wearing and testing a new pair of glasses, to whole new outfits for online shoppers to try on items without touching them30 Even a virtual fashion house under the name The Fabricant exists.31 The biggest difference: their objects are completely digitally created. This makes the designing process slightly easier, since there are no physical references to the object’s original tactility, such as cotton, silk or linen. It brings the question to mind of what the concept of ‘real’ means? We are used to referring to something physical when using the word 'real', while the digital world is also full-fledged, whether as a parallel world or not. I remember talking with a young Dutch fashion designer telling me she has URL and IRL friends. She was indicating people she only knows online (URL = Uniform Resource Locator for a website) or In Real Life (IRL), both equally important to her. It illustrates the importance of the current developments.

New layers

11Besides a virtual fitting room, other opportunities were created with the digitised files as well. Studio PMS invited a new generation of (digital) artists to take inspiration from the virtual museum objects. They added interesting new layers by designing new works. Have a look at multidisciplinary artist David Willems (born 1991) who has a background in game development and multimedia design. His work presents a highly personal vision of Madame van der Taelen’s dress as seen in Figure 2 by literally let it grow and flourish [Fig. 9]. How did he realise this? Willems selected a few details of the original garment: the pearls, silk and ribbons. Using those elements he recreated a digital artwork, adding movement to the fabric, magically allowing the embroidery and textures to raise into lifelike plants and moving creatures. His work balances on a fine line between realism and abstraction, bringing a whole new dimension to the original garment, without compromising the object.

Figure 9

Figure 9

Digital work by David Willems in 2022, based on a two-piece dress created by Mrs. H. van der Taelen in 1892, held at the Centraal Museum Utrecht, Netherlands (inv. 7944).

© David Willems.

A NFT with built-in weather report

12Another artist that was invited by Studio PMS was Stephan Duquesnoy (born 1983). Duquesnoy has a background in the gaming industry, is an independent artist and works as a lecturer at the HKU (University of Arts Utrecht). This background is reflected in his sensitive and nostalgic imagery. Especially for Van Pasvorm tot Polygon [From Pattern to Polygon] he has created the very first NFT that is now part of a Dutch museum collection32. NFT stands for “Non-Fungible Token”, which means that this currency is not replaceable and is marked with a unique signature33. The tokens have greatly promoted the advancement of digital fashion in 202234. For the exhibition Duquesnoy chose the digitised turquoise gown with gold lace originally designed around 1905 by Madame van der Taelen, the same fashion house that created the fragile dress of Elise van Ittersum. The turquoise dress was worn by Lady Henriette van der Poll (1853-1942), another lady-in-waiting to the Dutch Queen Emma35. Duquesnoy gave his own twist to the dress, to have it rooted in the 21st century, even though he was visually inspired by the 1900s Arts & Crafts Movement36 [Fig. 10]. His creation has other unique features: the image adjusts based on the combination of time/date and weather. This means that it has a day and night cycle, estimated of dusk and dawn on the geolocation of the Netherlands. Days can be cloudy, sunny or stormy, so the light is in line with how it changes based upon clouds. Finally, the colour palette is changed every month: summers have warmer and more greenish shades, while winters are desaturated with cool tints. All these different variables make an artwork that is ‘alive’ and always altering through a constant ‘live update’ of 1905 weather [Fig. 11].

Figure 10

Figure 10

Digital work by Stephan Duquesnoy in 2022, based on a turquoise dress created by Mrs. H. van der Taelen around 1905, held at the Centraal Museum Utrecht, Netherlands (inv. 10726).

© Stephan Duquesnoy.

Figure 11

Figure 11

The first NFT in a Dutch museum collection, by Stephan Duquesnoy, presented in the exhibition Van Pasvorm tot Polygon [From Pattern to Polygon], 2022.

© Stephan Duquesnoy / Centraal Museum Utrecht.

From virtual to reality

13Another appealing example comes from the collaboration with Utrecht-born and raised fashion designer Tess van Zalinge (born 1989). In her collections she places crafts and traditions in a contemporary context. Her clear signature style combines influences from Dutch heritage with reuse of existing materials37. Her 2022 collection Natuurlijk revolves around the paradox of ‘wild’ nature, which is increasingly protected and cultivated. Despite their different working methods, the Studio PMS and Tess van Zalinge share a love of craftsmanship and innovation and the awareness of the urgent need for sustainability. Van Zalinge asked Studio PMS to digitally design the eighth look for her Natuurlijk couture show, taking inspiration from the seven other looks in the same collection. Studio PMS created a meticulously rendered digital design, rich in details, texture and colours [Fig. 12], referring to elements from the prototype garments. Afterwards, Van Zalinge transformed this digital design into a physical outfit [Fig. 13] with a variety of textile finishes, reuse of materials and hours and hours of handwork. The collection now has a ‘look 8a’ and ‘look 8b’ (both visible on Figure 13): a virtual one and a physical one. This is an interesting example of how 21st-century crafts are merging.

Figure 12

Figure 12

Digital work of the eighth look in Tess van Zalinge's “Natuurlijk” [Natural] collection, created by studio PMS, 2022.

© Tess van Zalinge / Studio PMS

Figure 13

Figure 13

Digital and physical works of the eighth look in the “Natuurlijk” [Natural] collection, created by Studio PMS and Tess van Zalinge, shown here at the Van Pasvorm tot Polygon [From Pattern to Polygon] exhibition, 2022.

© Adriaan van Dam / Centraal Museum Utrecht.

14And what about trying on the museum collection? One of the last examples that I would like to highlight is the possibility of wearing garments from the museum’s fashion collection. Not physically, of course – but virtually. In Van Pasvorm tot Polygon [From Pattern to Polygon], visitors were able to experiment having a unique pair of shoes from the museum collection three dimensionally shown in the room [Fig. 14]. Especially for the exhibition, the Amsterdam-based scanning company FloatScans digitised shoes dating from the 18th to the 20th century. Visitors were invited to scan the QR-code with their phone, then the digital shoe twin would pop up on their screen. By focusing that image on a flat surface of the floor, the virtual shoes 'moves' to that spot. One could imagine to step into them, and thus taking a step into the future of our fashion heritage. No VR glasses needed. It not only helps visitors to feel closer to a specific designer or time frame, but it speaks to them in a contemporary language. Furthermore, the new technologies give new opportunities to virtually bring the collection along for lectures, schools, presentations and so on, since this is not possible for museum objects to travel to places without climate control.

Figure 14

Figure 14

3D digital visualization of 19th-century men's shoes (inv. 18813), 2022. The shoes are realistically placed on a virtual desktop, using augmented reality technology, on the screen of a cell phone. This 3D-scan was produced by FloatScans and WANNA.

© Marco Rendina.

What are the next steps?

15For Van Pasvorm tot Polygon [From Pattern to Polygon], Studio PMS and other makers respectfully reconstructed some of the museum’s vulnerable designs as high-quality digital (catwalk) models and even created new works of art. The exhibition formed a bridge between the past and the present, and the starting signal for the further digitisation of fashion collections in Dutch museums. One can follow further developments via the online platform Modemuze.nl38, a unique partnership between various Dutch and Belgium museums with fashion and costume collections. Recently the collective initiated the Unlocking Fashion Heritage project, with the aim of bringing crafts and new technologies together. Simultaneously another project is being developed via European Fashion Heritage Association (EFHA), called 5D cultures39. The EFHA brings together both public and private archives and museums across Europe, to share online their rich heritage of historical clothing and contemporary designs. 5D cultures will create and share knowledge on specific scenarios for the reuse of digital content. One of the goals is to design a digital fitting mirror, where, by looking at the reflection, one can try on hats from participating museum collections. This adds to a more engaging and immersive museum experience for fashion heritage.

16In conclusion, the digitisation of fashion heritage can liberate multiple stories, giving the public relatively easy access to them. Thus, connections can be made with perceptions of a global society to reach new audiences for whom the physical and digital worlds merge. Artefacts can be experienced beyond the short period of public display of, say, an exhibition. As benefits, it can be seen as bringing 'life' and movement back into a garment, it can be a form of preservation of fashion heritage, it offers 24/7 access to objects and new layers can be added to an object. One challenge is the labour-intensive process and sustainable preservation of the files. All this will be further explored in the coming years, including through the aforementioned Unlocking Fashion Heritage and 5D cultures projects, so keep an eye on those!

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Notes

1 TINSON Teddy, “A Fashion Model For the Moment”, The New York Times, 8 July 2020, online: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/08/style/hanifa-pink-congo-avatar.html [link valid in March 2024].

2 See online: https://www.instagram.com/shudu.gram/ [link valid in March 2024]. Shudu is a computer-generated model and can be seen as one of the first virtual created influencers, see also: JACKSON Lauren Michele, “Shudu Gram Is a White Man’s Digital Projection of Real-Life Black Womanhood”, The New Yorker, 4 May 2018, online: https://www.newyorker.com/culture/culture-desk/shudu-gram-is-a-white-mans-digital-projection-of-real-life-black-womanhood [link valid in March 2024].

3 PENROSE Nerisha, “Hanifa’s 3D Fashion Show Sets the Pace for the Future of the Runway”, Elle (online American edition), 26 May 2020, online: https://www.elle.com/fashion/shopping/a32668939/hanifa-3d-pink-label-congo-fashion-show/ [link valid in March 2024].

4 BARDELEBEN Elvire von, “Balenciaga a osé le défilé en réalité virtuelle”, Le Monde, 7 décembre 2020, online: https://www.lemonde.fr/m-styles/article/2020/12/07/balenciaga-a-ose-le-defile-en-realite-virtuelle_6062519_4497319.html [link valid in March 2024].

5 HJEMDAHL Anne-Sophie, “Exhibiting the body, dress, and time in museums: a historical perspective”, in RIEGELS MELCHIOR Marie & SVENSSON Birgitta (dir.), Fashion and Museums. Theory and Practice, London, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2014, p. 108-125.

6 STEELE Valerie, “A Museum of Fashion Is More Than a Clothes-Bag”, Fashion Theory, Vol. 2, Issue 4, 1998, p. 334.

7 See online: https://studiopms.nl/ [link valid in March 2024].

8 See online: https://studiopms.nl/projects/pattern-to-polygon [link valid in March 2024].

9 ADRIAANS Hanneke & KUUS Saskia, Mode en kostuums, Utrecht, Centraal Museum, Publisher Centraal Museum Utrecht, 1996.

10 Inv. nb. 14544 a, see online: https://www.centraalmuseum.nl/nl/collectie/14544-a-paar-trippen [link valid in December 2023].

11 BLOEMBERG Ninke, The New Craftmanship Iris van Herpen, (29 June – 9 Oct 2001, Centraal Museum) Exh. cat., Utrecht, Publisher Centraal Museum Utrecht, 2001, p. 6-8.

12 Inv. nb. 18093/001-002, see online: https://www.centraalmuseum.nl/nl/collectie/18093-001-002-tweedelige-japon-robe-la-franaise-bestaande-uit-overkleed-en-rok [link valid in March 2024].

13 Inv. nb. 35544/001-003, see online: https://www.centraalmuseum.nl/nl/collectie/35544-001-003-ensemble-afrika-pied-de-poule-jas-blouson-pantalon-tas-en-schoenen-fw-2019-20-louis-vuitton-by-virgil-abloh [link valid in March 2024].

14 See online: https://costume.mini.icom.museum/publications-2/guidelines/ [link valid in March 2024].

15 Inv. nb. 7944/001-002, see online: https://www.centraalmuseum.nl/nl/collectie/7944-001-002-tweedelige-japon-bestaande-uit-lijfje-en-rok-mme-h-van-der-taelen [link valid in March 2024].

16 HOHÉ Madelief, Haagse Hofmode, (15 Sept – 2 Dec 2007, Kunstmuseum) Exh. cat., The Hague, Waanders, Zwolle, 2007, p. 30.

17 JONGE Carla de, De Costuumverzameling 1750-1930. Gids en catalogus 1947, Utrecht, Publisher Centraal Museum Utrecht, 1947, p. 42-43.

18 BLOEMBERG Ninke, Uit de Mode, de collectie van het Centraal Museum (Exh. Cat), Utrecht, Publisher Centraal Museum Utrecht, 2017, p. 50-51. For more information about the exhibition, see online: https://www.centraalmuseum.nl/en/exhibitions/uit-de-mode [link valid in March 2024].

19 Inv. nb. 26419, see online: https://www.centraalmuseum.nl/nl/collectie/26419-rok-anoniem [link valid in March 2024].

20 GORP P.J.M. van & HOMBERGEN A.J.G.M., Textielwaren, 24th printing, Groningen, Wolters-Noordhof, 1974, p. 125.

21 Marei HACKE, « Weighted Silk: History, Analysis and Conservation », Studies in Conservation, 54 (Supplement-1), June 2009, p. 3-15, see online: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/272250267_Weighted_silk_History_analysis_and_conservation [link valid in March 2024].

22 MILLER Janet E. & REAGAN Barbara M., “Degradation in Weighted and Unweighted Historic Silks”, Journal of the American Institute for Conservation, vol. 28, no. 2, Autumn 1989, p. 97-115, online: https://0-www-jstor-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/stable/3179483 [link valid in March 2024].

23 See online: https://dressingroyalty.wordpress.com/elise-van-ittersum/ [link valid in March 2024].

24 See online: https://www.centraalmuseum.nl/nl/tentoonstellingen/kostuumshow-in-de-stallen [link valid in March 2024].

25 Note that the way the digital models walk is an artistic interpretation of the garments and not an historic accurate representation.

26 BLOEMBERG Ninke, The New Craftmanship Iris van Herpen, 2001, op. cit., p. 41.

27 “Iris van Herpen: Het proces van de vervaardiging een 3D ontwerp / Rapid Prototyping”, video, 13’’20’, prod. Centraal Museum, online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eNlgpaA9KO4 [link valid in March 2024].

28 Particle distance refers to the average distance between the points that make up a Garment Pattern’ and rendering refers to the process time of the computer.

29 See online as a reference for example: https://cgifurniture.com/what-are-polygons-in-3d-modeling/ [link valid in March 2024].

30 KENNEDY Joan, “3Dlook Launches New Virtual Fitting Room Tool”, Business of Fashion, 29 March 2022, online: https://www.businessoffashion.com/articles/technology/3dlook-launches-new-virtual-fitting-room-tool/ [link valid in March 2024].

31 See online: https://www.thefabricant.com/ [link valid in March 2024].

32 New technologies bring new challenges when it comes to collecting and taking care of ‘objects’ for the future. One could compare it to VHS tapes or floppy disks as parts of art installations decades ago: how do we preserve the art work and information and make it accessible in years to come?

33 CREIGHTON Jolene, “NFTs Explained: A Must-Read Guide to Everything Non-Fungible”, NFT Now (online publication), 12 January 2023, see online: https://nftnow.com/guides/what-is-nft-meaning/ [link valid in March 2024].

34 “Waarom de verkoop van NFT’s van virtuele mode wél stijgt – en wat ontwerpers daarvan kunnen leren”, Design Digger (online publication), 7 November 2022, online: https://www.designdigger.nl/2022/11/07/waarom-de-verkoop-van-nfts-van-virtuele-mode-wel-stijgt-en-wat-ontwerpers-daarvan-kunnen-leren/ [link valid in March 2024].

35 Inv. nb. 10726/001-002, see online: https://www.centraalmuseum.nl/nl/collectie/10726-001-002-tweedelige-avondjapon-bestaande-uit-japon-en-sleep-mme-h-van-der-taelen [link valid in March 2024].

36 See online: https://stephanduq.artstation.com/pages/two-piece-evening-gown-consisting-of-gown-and-train [link valid in March 2024].

37 “Interview no.88: Tess van Zalinge”, online: https://www.asustainablecloset.com/interview-people/interview-88-tess-van-zalinge [link valid in March 2024].

38 See online: https://www.modemuze.nl/over-modemuze [link valid in March 2024].

39 “5Dculture – Deploying and Demonstrating a 3D Cultural Heritage Space”, online: https://pro.europeana.eu/project/5dculture-deploying-and-demonstrating-a-3d-cultural-heritage-space [link valid in March 2024]

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Table des illustrations

Titre Figure 1
Légende A room of the exhibition Van Pasvorm tot Polygon [From Pattern to Polygon], Centraal Museum Utrecht, Netherlands, 2022. This room displays both a dress from the museum's collections and its digital twin.
Crédits © Adriaan van Dam / Centraal Museum Utrecht.
URL http://0-journals-openedition-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/insitu/docannexe/image/40454/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 259k
Titre Figure 2
Légende Two-piece dress created by Mrs. H. van der Taelen, ca. 1892, arranged horizontally in tissue paper, held at the Centraal Museum Utrecht, Netherlands (inv. 7944), 2017.
Crédits © Adriaan van Dam / Centraal Museum Utrecht.
URL http://0-journals-openedition-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/insitu/docannexe/image/40454/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 273k
Titre Figure 3
Légende Museum catalog cover of De costuumverzameling 1750-1930, Utrecht, Centraal Museum Utrecht, 1947.
Crédits Reproduction Dea Rijper (Centraal Museum Utrecht).
URL http://0-journals-openedition-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/insitu/docannexe/image/40454/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 176k
Titre Figure 4
Légende Photograph of the two-piece dress designed by Mrs. H. van der Taelen in 1892, in the catalog De costuumverzameling 1750-1930, Utrecht, Centraal Museum Utrecht, Netherlands, 1947, p. 43.
Crédits © Centraal Museum Utrecht.
URL http://0-journals-openedition-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/insitu/docannexe/image/40454/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 5,9M
Titre Figure 5
Légende Detail of the two-piece dress designed by Mrs. H. van der Taelen in 1892, with clearly visible tears, held at the Centraal Museum Utrecht (inv. 7944), 2017.
Crédits © Adriaan van Dam / Centraal Museum Utrecht.
URL http://0-journals-openedition-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/insitu/docannexe/image/40454/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 243k
Titre Figure 6
Légende Costume show organized by the Centraal Museum Utrecht (Netherlands) in 1988 to celebrate the museum's 150th anniversary.
Crédits © Unknown photographer / Centraal Museum Utrecht.
URL http://0-journals-openedition-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/insitu/docannexe/image/40454/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 251k
Titre Figure 7
Légende Fashion show of digitized garments from the fashion collection of the Centraal Museum Utrecht (Netherlands) created by Studio PMS, 2022.
Crédits © Studio PMS.
URL http://0-journals-openedition-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/insitu/docannexe/image/40454/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 213k
Titre Figure 8
Légende The 3D digitization process of a hat from the museum's collection next to the original, held at the Centraal Museum Utrecht (inv. 32949).
Crédits © Suzanne Mulder (Centraal Museum Utrecht).
URL http://0-journals-openedition-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/insitu/docannexe/image/40454/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,4M
Titre Figure 9
Légende Digital work by David Willems in 2022, based on a two-piece dress created by Mrs. H. van der Taelen in 1892, held at the Centraal Museum Utrecht, Netherlands (inv. 7944).
Crédits © David Willems.
URL http://0-journals-openedition-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/insitu/docannexe/image/40454/img-9.jpeg
Fichier image/jpeg, 418k
Titre Figure 10
Légende Digital work by Stephan Duquesnoy in 2022, based on a turquoise dress created by Mrs. H. van der Taelen around 1905, held at the Centraal Museum Utrecht, Netherlands (inv. 10726).
Crédits © Stephan Duquesnoy.
URL http://0-journals-openedition-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/insitu/docannexe/image/40454/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 323k
Titre Figure 11
Légende The first NFT in a Dutch museum collection, by Stephan Duquesnoy, presented in the exhibition Van Pasvorm tot Polygon [From Pattern to Polygon], 2022.
Crédits © Stephan Duquesnoy / Centraal Museum Utrecht.
URL http://0-journals-openedition-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/insitu/docannexe/image/40454/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 499k
Titre Figure 12
Légende Digital work of the eighth look in Tess van Zalinge's “Natuurlijk” [Natural] collection, created by studio PMS, 2022.
Crédits © Tess van Zalinge / Studio PMS
URL http://0-journals-openedition-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/insitu/docannexe/image/40454/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 272k
Titre Figure 13
Légende Digital and physical works of the eighth look in the “Natuurlijk” [Natural] collection, created by Studio PMS and Tess van Zalinge, shown here at the Van Pasvorm tot Polygon [From Pattern to Polygon] exhibition, 2022.
Crédits © Adriaan van Dam / Centraal Museum Utrecht.
URL http://0-journals-openedition-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/insitu/docannexe/image/40454/img-13.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 217k
Titre Figure 14
Légende 3D digital visualization of 19th-century men's shoes (inv. 18813), 2022. The shoes are realistically placed on a virtual desktop, using augmented reality technology, on the screen of a cell phone. This 3D-scan was produced by FloatScans and WANNA.
Crédits © Marco Rendina.
URL http://0-journals-openedition-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/insitu/docannexe/image/40454/img-14.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 160k
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Référence électronique

Ninke Bloemberg, « The Future of Fashion Heritage is Digital »In Situ [En ligne], 52 | 2024, mis en ligne le 09 avril 2024, consulté le 18 juin 2024. URL : http://0-journals-openedition-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/insitu/40454 ; DOI : https://0-doi-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/10.4000/insitu.40454

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Auteur

Ninke Bloemberg

Fashion curator at Centraal Museum Utrecht
nbloemberg@centraalmuseum.nl

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