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Photograph 1. Closure of the space for the exclusive use of tourist customers. The Sandals Resort and its private beach (Saint Lucia)

Photograph 1. Closure of the space for the exclusive use of tourist customers. The Sandals Resort and its private beach (Saint Lucia)

Source : O. Dehoorne (2012).

  • 1 « The totalitarian violence of the progressive myth is the cause and effect of domination of the so (...)

« La violence totalitaire du mythe progressiste est la cause et l'effet de la domination du monde social et naturel, et de la dévastation de ces mêmes mondes, dont la crise est l'expression achevée. »1
Michel Maffesoli, Être postmoderne (2018)

1In the Latin American context, various studies have pointed out how violence spreads through numerous channels, both inside and outside the State (Geertz, 2006). Guillermo O'Donnell describes the State in this region as narrow, resistant to fully recognizing diverse social sectors and their demands, often confronting them with clientelistic practices and even violence (2008: 37). Loïc Wacquant identifies contemporary urban outcasts as those thrown into misery amid the advance of the capitalist economy, despite economic growth (2007: 172).

2Tourism is perceived as a fast track to socioeconomic advancement due to the flow of foreign currency and high employment rates (Lumsdon & Swift, 2001 ; Duval, 2004). However, tourist territories face problems of socioeconomic redistribution and failure linked to state indifference towards socially incorrect behavior, which are criminogenic factors (Gómez Sánchez & Sánchez Hernández, 2020; Gómez Sánchez, 2020). Under these "civilized" tourist practices, a violent and deceitful underworld coexists (Kempadoo, 2004 ; Gutiérrez Sanín, 2014: 12).

3This issue of Études Caribéennes aims to explore the intersection between violence and tourism, examining the contradiction between "pacified" areas that attract population flows in search of better income and territories marked by high multidimensional violence. We wonder if tourism encourages crime and vice versa, in a context where tourist activity is concentrated in exclusive, extremely secure areas (Pattulo, 1996 ; Dehoorne et Murat, 2008).

  • 2 To go further, see the articles O. Dehoorne (dec, 2013): « Le baguage du touriste

Photograph 2. “Beyond this limit, wearing a bracelet is obligatory.” Pierre et Vacances in 2007 (Martinique)2

Photograph 2. “Beyond this limit, wearing a bracelet is obligatory.” Pierre et Vacances in 2007 (Martinique)2

In 2007, the holiday club decided to “secure” its territory and ensure that locals could no longer use its facilities near the coast.

Source : O. Dehoorne (2013)

4We consider several types of violence, including gender, intrafamilial, class, race, sexual preference, symbolic, aporophobia and social inequality (Aragón, 2022), observing their intersectionality. Wacquant (2007: 129) warns about the importance of not limiting poverty to the lack of material goods, highlighting self-representation as a "social anomaly", which marks symbolic dispossession. In the context of the tourist territories of the Global South, residents often cohabit two worlds marked by extreme symbolic violence, reflected in spatial segregation and the disparity between opulence (Dehoorne & Theng, 2015) and poverty (Wacquant, 2007: 178).

5In this special issue of our magazine, we immerse ourselves in an exhaustive and critical analysis of the intertwining between tourism, security and the multiple facets of violence in Latin America. Through a careful selection of ten articles, we address diverse perspectives and realities that outline the complexity of this issue in our region.

6From the arid lands of Mexico to the paradisiacal beaches of the Caribbean, passing through the lush jungles of Central America and the majestic landscapes of South America, the authors guide us through an intellectual journey that allows us to understand the profound interactions between tourism, communities localities and the dynamics of violence that emerge in this context.

7Horacio Almanza Alcalde transports us to northern Mexico, where he faces the conflict between the State and the indigenous communities in the Chihuahua region, exploring the dilemmas of resistance and adaptation in the face of the Divisadero Barrancas tourism project.

8From the perspective of Kuna ecotourism in Panama by Vildan Bahar Tuncay, to the tourist saturation on the island of San Andrés in Colombia proposed by Johannie James among others, the articles reveal how the tourist flow can transform landscapes and social dynamics, too often exacerbating pre-existing tensions and giving rise to new forms of violence, both physical and symbolic.

9Gender violence in tourist destinations such as Playa del Carmen finally proposed by Alma Ivonne Marín Marín, Ericka Cruz and Elsa Vázquez, the perception of tourists about security in destinations like Trinidad and Tobago, which is submitted, on the one hand, by Trinidadian researcher Wendell Wallace and on the other by Dean Acolla Lewis-Cameron, or the influence of tourism on the narrative of historical conflicts in Guatemala submitted by Coralie Morand are just some of the areas of study that we explore in depth.

10In addition, this dossier analyzes emerging phenomena such as public-private alliances in tourism development and the emergence of megatourism in destinations such as Guanacaste, Costa Rica, coordinated mainly by Daniel Fernández, Jimena Palma and Dylanna Rodríguez. It also delves into the complex dynamics of marginality and exclusion in the urban peripheries of the Colombian Caribbean, where violence and inequality are intertwined in surprising ways, written by William Álvarez, José Romero and Davide Riccardi. In short, Mine Kojima's text significantly complements the Antillean arc by exploring the socio-political dynamics in the Dutch Caribbean.

Photograph 3. When the beach is public :Reserving space through the provision of private deckchairs. The Club-Med method in Martinique (2014).

Photograph 3. When the beach is public :Reserving space through the provision of private deckchairs. The Club-Med method in Martinique (2014).

The tourist complex protects the surrounding area by placing its deckchairs in the early hours of the morning on Sainte-Anne beach. The deckchairs are private, so cannot be moved by people who are not Club-Med customers. The objective is to install a zone of no-man’s land between the Club-Med and the part of the beach frequented by the local population.

11This special issue invites our readers to reflect on tourism beyond visitor statistics and economic income. We face fundamental questions about sustainable development, social justice, human rights and environmental preservation, intersecting them with the phenomenon of mass tourism and violence in its many facets, such as security.

12We sincerely thank all authors for their valuable contribution to this discussion and hope that this special issue stimulates a broader and deeper dialogue on these crucial issues in our region.

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Bibliographie

Aragón Falomir, J. (2022). Women, violence and tourism: modes of domination in the Mexican Caribbean. Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies / Revue canadienne des études latino-américaines et caraïbes 47(3). https://0-www-tandfonline-com.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/doi/abs/10.1080/08263663.2022.2110784.

Dehoorne, O. et Murat, C. (2009). Regards croisés sur les enjeux du tourisme en Amérique latine. Études caribéennes 13-14. http://0-journals-openedition-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/etudescaribeennes/4033 ; DOI : https://0-doi-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/10.4000/etudescaribeennes.4033

Dehoorne, O. et S. Theng (2015). « Studying luxury », Études caribéennes, 30. URL : http://0-journals-openedition-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/etudescaribeennes/31254 ; DOI : https://0-doi-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/10.4000/etudescaribeennes.31254

Duval, D.T. (ed) (2004). Tourism in the Caribbean: Trends, Development, Prospects. Routledge, London. DOI : 10.4324/9780203402696

Geertz, C. (2004). What is a State if it is not a sovereign? Current Anthropology, 45(5).

Gómez Sánchez, E. J. (2020). Criminalidad durante la contingencia sanitaria por COVID-19 y su impacto en el turismo en Cancún, Quintana Roo. Archivos de Criminología, Seguridad Privada y Criminalística, 27: 82‑90.

Gutierrez, F. (2014). El orangutan con sacoleva. Cien años de demcoracia y represión en Colombia (1910-2010). Bogotá: DEBATE.

Kempadoo, K. (2004). Sexing the Caribbean: Gender, Race and Sexual Labor. Routledge New York. DOI : 10.4324/9780203338087

Lumsdon, L. & Swift, J. (2001). Tourism in Latin America. Continuum, London.

Maffesoli, M. (2018). Être postmoderne. Paris, les Éditions du Cerf.

Marín Marín, A.I. & E. Cruz Coria (2023). “Mapear la violencia contra las mujeres en ciudades turísticas”, Alba Sud. https://www.albasud.org/noticia/es/1559/mapear-la-violencia-contra-las-mujeres-en-ciudades-turisticas

O’Donnell, G. (2008). Hacia un Estado de y para la democracia. Democracia/Estado/Ciudadanía. Hacia un Estado de y para la democracia en América Latina, 25-64.

Pattullo, P. (1996). Last resorts: the cost of tourism in the Caribbean. Kingston, Ian Randle Publishers.

Wacquant, L. (2007). Parias urbanos. Marginalidad en la ciudad a comienzos del milenio. Manantial.

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Notes

1 « The totalitarian violence of the progressive myth is the cause and effect of domination of the social and natural world, and the devastation of these same worlds, of which the crisis is the completed expression. »

2 To go further, see the articles O. Dehoorne (dec, 2013): « Le baguage du touriste

ou la traçabilité du consommateur » : https://www.croiseedesroutes.com/histoires-touristes-1decembre- ; «  Choisir le « Club » pour des vacances en toute sécurité » (janvier 2014) : https://www.croiseedesroutes.com/histoires-de-touristes-2-2014

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Table des illustrations

Titre Photograph 1. Closure of the space for the exclusive use of tourist customers. The Sandals Resort and its private beach (Saint Lucia)
Crédits Source : O. Dehoorne (2012).
URL http://0-journals-openedition-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/etudescaribeennes/docannexe/image/31422/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 557k
Titre Photograph 2. “Beyond this limit, wearing a bracelet is obligatory.” Pierre et Vacances in 2007 (Martinique)2
Légende In 2007, the holiday club decided to “secure” its territory and ensure that locals could no longer use its facilities near the coast.
Crédits Source : O. Dehoorne (2013)
URL http://0-journals-openedition-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/etudescaribeennes/docannexe/image/31422/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 380k
Titre Photograph 3. When the beach is public :Reserving space through the provision of private deckchairs. The Club-Med method in Martinique (2014).
Légende The tourist complex protects the surrounding area by placing its deckchairs in the early hours of the morning on Sainte-Anne beach. The deckchairs are private, so cannot be moved by people who are not Club-Med customers. The objective is to install a zone of no-man’s land between the Club-Med and the part of the beach frequented by the local population.
URL http://0-journals-openedition-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/etudescaribeennes/docannexe/image/31422/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 182k
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Référence électronique

Jaime Aragon Falomir, Olivier Dehoorne et Raúl Román Romero, « Intertwining Violence and Tourism: Complex Realities in Latin America and the Caribbean »Études caribéennes [En ligne], 57-58 | Avril-Août 2024, mis en ligne le 15 avril 2024, consulté le 13 juin 2024. URL : http://0-journals-openedition-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/etudescaribeennes/31422 ; DOI : https://0-doi-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/10.4000/etudescaribeennes.31422

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Auteurs

Jaime Aragon Falomir

Maître de conférences, Université des Antilles, jaime.aragonf@gmail.com

Olivier Dehoorne

Maître de conférences, Université des Antilles, dehoorneo@gmail.com

Articles du même auteur

Raúl Román Romero

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Droits d’auteur

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