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Abstract

Dagong writers – writers who are factory workers – engage in two kinds of labor, the physical labor that earns a living and the spiritual labor that comforts the soul. They are closely related. First, physical labor provides the raison d’être for spiritual labor, becoming an important theme for it. Second, spiritual labor alleviates the fatigue of physical labor, enabling the alienated labor to obtain poetic salvation. Because of their achievement in spiritual labor, many workers have made the leap from assembly line to office, and from factory workers to contemporary writers. When they are no longer engaged in physical labor, there is a risk that the authenticity of their Dagong literature will fade. The reason why Dagong workers choose literature, especially poetry, as a means of their spiritual labor is closely related to the characteristics of the genre and their limited cultural education.

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1Since China’s Reform and Opening Up began in 1978, its economy developed rapidly and China gradually became the “world’s factory”. These factories were located mainly in cities, especially those along the southeastern coast, such as Guangzhou and Shenzhen. Many peasants in the poor countryside moved to the factories in these areas to “Dagong”, which means “doing manual labor” in Chinese, so they were called the Dagong people. At the national level, due to the hukou, or household registration system, as well as because of domestic migration policy, they cannot become formal workers in the city, so often remain in a passive and subordinate state. At the social level, the dual tracks of urban and rural living have been internalized by most people. As a result, migrant workers suffer from social discrimination and social exclusion. As such, it is difficult for them to integrate into any city. In their working environment, their labor intensity is high, their working hours are long and their wages are low. They are rootless people wandering the city, people who can neither stay in the city nor go back to the countryside. In other words, they are not only cast out of rural society, but also cannot embed in the city. They are subject to a double dis-embeddedness and easily fall into spiritual crisis (Liu 2019: 27). In short, in the contemporary Chinese society, migrant workers are a vulnerable group, located at the bottom of the social field.

2Dagong writers are one group of migrant workers. They are the people who create literature while working. They have profound experiences of the marginal structural situation common to migrant workers, so they use writing to express their dissatisfaction and seek spiritual comfort.

3In the field of art, different from “normal” artists, the uniqueness of Dagong writers lies in that they are, first, migrant workers in factories, who then create literature during their spare time. They do two kinds of labor simultaneously. One is physical labor in factories, the other is spiritual labor off work. They produce two kinds of products. One is the product of the factory, which is their formal work, but that has a weak connection to who they are. In fact, we can hardly say that it is their work, although they may have feelings about it. The other is the spiritual product, which is the outcome of their hobby, but to which they have a strong connection. That is their real work. Existing literature on Dagong writers has paid little attention to the two kinds of labor these writers engage in and how they intertwine with each other. So, we may ask what exactly is the relationship between these two kinds of labor? This paper attempts to discuss this.

1. Physical labor in spiritual labor

4Dagong writers are engaged in two kinds of labor. One is physical labor, as they produce many kinds of products on the assembly line. They are ordinary workers. The other is the spiritual labor produced outside the factory, as they create literary works during their spare time. In this case, they are unusual writers. People usually see the relationship between the two kinds of labor as separate, or even opposite. When people rank them, the latter is often positioned higher than the former. However, for Dagong writers, the two opposite kinds of labor are closely intertwined.

5There is a close relationship between the physical labor and spiritual labor of Dagong writers. In their creative works, these writers often describe their working lives. As such, spiritual labor embodies their physical labor, and their physical labor enters the world of their spiritual labor. For instance, in Liu Chang’s survey of the content of Dagong poetry, the working scenes of migrant workers account for a high proportion. According to her, among the 172 poems of the Selected Chinese Dagong Poems in 2008, 71 poems depict physical labor; among 198 poems in the Selected Chinese Dagong Poems in 2012, 101 poems describe the experiences of physical labor; among 229 poems in the Selected Chinese Dagong Poems in 2014, 74 poems portray physical labor (Liu 2019: 87).

6To understand the creative activities of Dagong writers, we need to first examine the factories they work in. Some sociologists point out that most of the factories where migrant workers are employed can be seen as a “factory autocracy” (Guo and Huang 2014: 54; Shen 2006: 34). The basic characteristics consist of: 1. high intensity of labor process, long working hours and low wages; 2. worker dormitories in the factory have become the extension of workshop autocracy; 3. apart from the working relationship of the production line, workers are atomized due to lack of social ties; 4. paramilitary inhumane management (Liu 2019: 29). This kind of factory causes the alienated condition and psychological trauma of workers, and Dagong writers describe this work environment in great detail.

7First of all, Dagong writers describe the scenes of labor and show how they feel about it. Zheng Xiaoqiong, for instance, has worked in various factories. In a description of a hardware factory, she writes: “In the face of oxygen arc cutting, I feel that the sound of steel comes from my bones. The heavy cutting machine seems to be cutting my body and soul piece by piece. The sound has sharp pain, just as a scattered spark” (Zheng 2007a: 86). In her description of a plastic factory, she writes: “People in the plastic factory generally work longer than those in the steel factory, which is a kind of torture, deep in the body” (Zheng 2007a: 89). In her description of the scene of labor, the feeling of pain is an important theme. Whether it’s a hardware factory or a plastic factory, it brings her a kind of pain. This is not only a kind of bodily pain, but also a kind of psychological pain; it is not only a kind of physical pain, but also a kind of spiritual pain.

  • 1 As one anonymous reviewer of this paper said, the qualitative feature of the worker’s pain can be s (...)

8Different factories are associated with different feelings of pain. This is closely linked to the materials processed by hardware factories and plastic factories, that is, steel and plastic. Zheng Xiaoqiong points out: “If the sound of steel collision in the hardware factory is like the pain caused by a pricking needle, then in the plastic factory, it is more like endless loneliness just like the plastic” (Zheng 2007a: 89). Whereas the pain of hardware factory is sharp, it is “pain caused by a pricking needle”; the pain of plastic factory is long lasting, an “endless loneliness just like the plastic”. In the view of Chan Buddhism, the inner mind is no different from the material in the external world. There is no entity called the mind, as the mind is constituted by the material world we experience. It is a process, not an entity. For instance, when we see flowers, it was constituted by the flowers we see, different from the mind when we see stones. Thus, when the workers are at work in the factory, they are surrounded by materials in the factory. They use all their senses to feel them in an active or passive way: they use their eyes to see them, their ears to listen to them, their hands to touch them, their noses to smell them. The materials are not only objects processed by the workers, but they also enter their feelings and shape their emotions.1 In this sense, we can say there are as many unique feelings as there are unique materials for these workers, and the Dagong writers grasp and express them.

9In the description of labor scene, the feeling of boredom is another important theme. In the factory, on the assembly line, the actions of the workers are repetitive and monotonous. In the poem Hu Hui, Zheng Xiaoqiong writes: “A monotonous process/she has been imprisoned by this action/for several years/She’s been screwing it up/for three years” (Zheng 2012: 68). Here, a certain action imprisons the migrant worker. In factories, workers are the cogs in machines and lose their vitality, leading to a state of boredom. Zheng Xiaoqiong wrote in Female Worker: Youth Fixed on the Card Seat: “Great boredom/floating in the mind over the years/she’s been guarding/turning one screw and two screws left and right/fixing her dreams and youth in a certain product” (Zheng 2012: 1). In the description of the labor by Dagong workers, monotony and boredom are key words, showing high frequency. In this regard, Kuang Meiyan, another Dagong writer, gives a detailed description:

I stand upright in front of the position of locking screw. Whenever the chassis on the disk flows in front of me, I hold the electric screwdriver in my left hand and a small screw in my right hand. I put the small screw into the hole at the end of the chassis and open the electric screwdriver. After the sound “cici”, the small screw is firmly embedded into the small hole. Repeat this. One, two, three, four…. As the assembly line glides through the constant voice, constant speed, and constant action in hand, the constant rhythm is like a bunch of incantations. My consciousness is gradually blurred, and my soul begins to quietly leave my body (Kuang 2016: 153).

10Kuang Meiyan describes the labor process of constantly locking screws in an unchanged manner. As a result, the consciousness of the migrant worker is blurred and lost, resulting in the illusion that the mind or soul has separated from the body. In Modern Times, a factory worker (Charles Chaplin) has the job of tightening a nut on a machine, which he repeats over and over, eventually losing his mind and trying to tighten everything that looks like a nut. Though it was a comedy in 1936, it depicted vividly what the workers experienced in the factory, which was very similar to what Dagong writers depict in their works.

11Second, Dagong writers also depict the fruits of their labor. According to Simmel, the more division of labor, the less soul the products have (Simmel 2004: 464). Although the spiritual connection between workers and their products is weak, it does not mean that this spiritual connection does not exist. In Suspender Skirt written by a Dagong poet Wu Xia, the spiritual connection between the writer and the suspender skirt she makes is described:

I’ll iron the sling first/hang it on your shoulder without strangling you/then start ironing it from the waist/what a lovely waist/can put a white hand/on the avenue/caress a quiet love/finally unfold the skirt/I’ll iron every wrinkle the same width/let you on the lake or the lawn/wait for the wind/you can also run But/make sure the skirt floats with radian/like a flower (Wu 2019: 50).

12Here, every movement of the workers’ physical labor relates to her imagined future consumers, and her imagination of the future suspender skirt. Zheng Xiaoqiong describes that when she sees books and pictorials printed by her on the street, “there is a kind of happiness, likes reuniting with old friends,” “because of our palmprint, our youth and the years left in those books, and maybe our tears and sweat, are dormant the pages of the book” (Zheng 2007b: 110). Although the labor in the factory is monotonous, the workers still feel happy when they see the products they produce.

13Products are not only products, but also bear the memories of migrant workers. Therefore, whenever these achievements are discarded, migrant workers feel desolate. Zheng Xiaoqiong describes this feeling. After advertising leaflets have been printed by the printing factory, pedestrians may throw them on the ground without even looking at them, and then they will be picked up by garbage collectors and thrown into the trash. This scene makes her “feel a kind of heartache, as if a needle is stinging my body”, because “at the moment when the old man picks up the garbage and throws the exquisite printed book into the garbage bag, I feel like I have been thrown in, just like our youth, love, and hatred, as well as the feelings of the body and soul, as if no one cared” (Zheng 2007b: 110).

14It can be seen that, based on the above content, Dagong writers depict all aspects of physical labor. But this is a relatively shallow relationship between physical labor and spiritual labor. The deeper connection between them is that various experiences and feelings based in physical labor can be used as metaphors or frameworks to shape the Dagong writers’ understandings of life and the world. In other words, they can shape Dagong writers’ spiritual labor.

15In this regard, the image shifts in Zheng Xiaoqiong’s works are representative. Before working in a hardware factory, the dominant image in her poems was wind. She resembles the wind herself, constantly changing factories and stations, with a strong sense of helplessness. However, after working at the hardware factory for four years, the image of iron began to occupy a dominant position, “stayed in the hardware factory for almost four years, dealing with iron every day” (Liu 2019: 135). This deeply influenced her poetry creation: “I always want to fill my poetry with an iron flavor, being sharp and hard” (Zheng 2007a: 87). She even understands her workmates through this image, imagining that they are “thrown down like scrap iron in an open dump” (Zheng 2007a: 87). The image of iron has rich connotations, which fit with and shape the poet’s understanding of society and life.

16Poet Chen Nianxi is a miner, dealing with rocks all the year round. When he learned that his mother was diagnosed with advanced esophageal cancer, he did not rush home, but stayed at the mine to continue to make money that his family was in urgent need of. His painful feelings are expressed in the poem Exploding Records: “My tiny relatives/far away at the foot of Shangshan Mountain/their sick bodies are covered with dust/how much my middle age has been cut off/how much their old age can be extended/I have three tons of explosives in my body/they are fuse parts/just at last night/in front of their bed/I burst like a rock” (Chen 2019: 220). He makes his living by detonating rocks, and this vividly shapes his pained feelings.

2. Spiritual labor redeems physical labor

17In Marx’s view, spiritual creation is incompatible with capitalist production. In capitalist society, labor is a kind of alienated labor. There is no poetry or art in the factory, which resembles a desert, “capitalist production is hostile to certain branches of spiritual production, for example, art and poetry” (Marx 1963: 285). Marx’s theory of alienated labor mainly refers to the physical labor of the factory, and although it is full of profound insights, he ignored the spiritual labor of workers outside the factory. Yet through Dagong writers, we can see that the alienation caused by labor also contains the potential to eliminate alienation, importantly, through artistic creation.

18Liu Chang believes that for Dagong poets, literature is a way for individuals to adjust the relationship between themselves and their situation, “constructing” or individuating themselves in the process. From the perspective of the relationship between the individual and the structural situation, she divides the attitudes of Dagong poets towards their own situation into three types: adaptive attitude, critical attitude and creative attitude. She points out that for Dagong poets, poetry creation is inseparable from the structural situation of migrant workers, and this provides an important way of salvation and relief: “The descriptions of salvation, spiritual crutches, and spiritual sustenance show that many Dagong poets regard literary activities as an important way to maintain spiritual vitality in their migrant workers’ life” (Liu 2019: 72). But how can Dagong writers remove the alienation of physical labor through spiritual labor?

19If the migrant worker’s labor is alienated but does not recognize it, then he is deeply embedded. If he is aware of it, and reveals, reflects on and criticizes it, then he transcends it in a sense. Zheng Xiaoqiong writes in The Assembly Line:

When I walk in the workshop of the assembly line, I can no longer see people. What I see are groups, types of work and process operators. Like them, I live in constant loss, which originally belonged to our precious parts: consciousness, joy, sexuality, curves. It’s all cut off by the assembly line (Zheng 2007c).

20In Zheng’s description, the migrant workers become part of the assembly line, “consciousness, joy, sexuality, curves. It’s all cut off by the assembly line”. Kuang Meiyan describes the uniforms worn on the assembly line, which are also monotonous and boring: “The uniforms act as a tool of labor, rather than a function of comfort and beautification. Work clothes, regardless of age, gender, body shape, or style, are only divided into S, M, L, XL, XXL……” (Kuang 2016: 3).

21Wu Xia’s experience is thought-provoking. She works in a garment factory. Her favorite dress is a suspender skirt that she bought for 25 yuan at a stall. During the day, she has no chance to wear it in the factory, but at night, when all the people in the dormitory are sleep, she puts on the suspender skirt. Years later, she wrote in her poem Suspender Skirt: “I’m going to get off work/I’m going to wash my sweaty factory clothes/I’ve folded it up and packed it/suspender skirt will be transported out of the workshop/to a market or a fashionable store” (Wu 2019: 50). In the poem, there is a sharp contrast between the sweaty factory clothes and the fashionable suspender skirt. People cannot wait to end their monotonous work at the factory and begin their rich and colorful lives outside.

22Migrant working life is a stimulating factor of literary creation for working writers. In fact, Zheng Xiaoqiong’s first poem in the South was inspired by a labor accident. After Zheng Xiaoqiong’s fingernail was injured, she lay in the hospital bed and thought about her life, and then wrote a poem. We can see that where there are injuries, there are opportunities for rescue; where there are dangers, there are possibilities for redemption. For migrant workers, literature is an important means of poetic salvation. In Zheng Xiaoqiong’s poem A Min, she writes: “Poetry is poisonous opium/it envelops fantasy/on the paper/we record our lives” (Zheng 2012: 116). She also recalls: “At the time, I was still beating iron chips and drills in the hardware factory. When I got off work, I wrote useless poems and presented my anger on paper” (Zheng 2012: 10). But Zheng Xiaoqiong not only writes about herself, but also about other migrant workers. This is her poetry anthology Women Migrant Workers: “I wrote 100 women migrant workers and wrote 100 poems with their stories. I think these 100 poems are my 100 suggestions” (Liu 2019: 164). By writing poems, Zheng Xiaoqiong not only redeemed herself, but also called for the rights for other female workers.

23As a kind of spiritual labor, poetry writing is an effective way of salvation after heavy and monotonous physical labor. Some working writers point out: “The pain of physical labor makes me write poems” (Liu 2019: 66). When a migrant writer worked as an electrician, he returned to the dormitory at 10:30 p. m. and began to write poems in his bed, which relieved his pressure: “Once I read my poems, I feel very comfortable” (Liu 2019: 71).

24From this point of view, the physical labor and spiritual labor of Dagong writers presents a deeper connection. For heavy physical labor, spiritual labor is a kind of redemption. The two kinds of labor do not increase the burden of the workers, but one kind of labor eases and redeems the other. Through this kind of redemption, heavy physical labor is spiritually transfigured. For ordinary workers, perhaps there is only physical labor, and only alienation, without any salvation; for Dagong writers, however, when physical labor triggers spiritual labor, they save themselves. We cannot truly understand their physical labor, nor their alienation, unless we see them in connection with spiritual labor. As a result, their physical fatigue and exhaustion is the context for our understanding of their spiritual brilliance, and their alienated labor is in fact the seed of their spiritual salvation.

3. Spiritual labor and physical labor are inseparable

25Normally, migrant workers are only engaged in physical labor. In addition, Dagong writers are also engaged in spiritual labor with the content of physical labor, giving them the opportunity and possibility of ridding themselves of the identity of “migrant workers”. Spiritual labor not only redeems physical labor at the spiritual level, but also helps workers escape physical labor. In other words, through writing, Dagong writers can realize the leap from assembly line to the office. This is the basic motivation of many migrant writers – to achieve upward social mobility. In the words of Dagong writer Kuang Meiyan, it motivates oneself to “constantly improve oneself and strive to get out of the assembly line” (Kuang 2016:163). An Shiliu, for example, used to be an assembly line worker, a supervisor, a small businessman, a street vendor, and later became an editor and reporter for Shenzhen’s Dapeng Bay magazine. Xie Xiangnan once worked as a construction worker, an assembly line worker, a porter and so on, and now he is a poet, art critic, and media worker in Shenzhen. Zheng Xiaoqiong has worked in a furniture factory, a hardware factory, a wool weaving factory, a printing factory and a toy factory, and now she is the associate editor of the famous literary journal Works.

26The question is, when Dagong writers no longer work in the factory, and are no longer engaged in physical labor, what impact does that have on their spiritual labor? Does their spiritual labor still work? A discussion of this reveals the relationship between the spiritual labor and physical labor of Dagong writers.

27In the process of crossing classes, Dagong writers have changed from the center at the edge, that is, the people who can write among the migrant workers, to the edge at the center, that is, the people who have migrant working experience among the writers. It is an enviable label for migrant workers, but it is not a good label for writers. In fact, after entering the contemporary literary world, many Dagong writers resist the label of “migrant workers” and actively embrace the label of “writer”. They tend to downplay the former but highlight the latter. As Li Lingling analyzes:

Dagong writers have won various certificates and literary awards from the mainstream literary circles. However, when the mainstream literary circles believe that they are all rewarded because of their status as Dagong writers, and their creative capacity needs to be further improved, some Dagong writers begin to treat the label of“migrant working”as a taboo and rush to wash away the birthmark of “migrant working” (Li 2016: 243).

28As migrant workers, the label of Dagong writer once made them stand out, while as writers, such a label banish them to oblivion and subject them to questions. It can be said that from the assembly line to the office, what they achieve is not only displacement, but also the transformation of the context in which people view and evaluate them. The label that used to bring them advantages then becomes a disadvantage. As Li Lingling has pointed out: “The writers’ original status as migrant workers made them different and other in the mainstream literary circle within the system and even suffered from the discrimination and dwarfing of the mainstream” (Li 2016: 241). Therefore, when Dagong writers enter the contemporary literary world, they will not only gradually dilute the past label and experience of work, but also adjust their creations, tending towards pure literature. After Zheng Xiaoqiong won the People’s Literature Award for her prose Iron·Plastic factory, Nanfang Metropolis Daily commented that the literature of migrant workers is returning to pure literature: “Zheng Xiaoqiong and the new generation of Dagong writers are increasingly integrated into the mainstream literature world with their mature works” (Li 2016: 229).

29Many scholars attempt to separate spiritual labor and physical labor, but that is difficult to achieve. The ancient Chinese put forward the idea of knowing the authors before discussing their works, and our understanding of the spiritual products of Dagong writers is actually based on their physical labor. The famous poet Yang Lian believes that Dagong poet Guo Jinniu’s poems can be understood from his descriptions of detail, which allows us to recognize Guo Jinniu’s bitter life story. Zhu Chengming believes that for Kuang Meiyan, bodily presence is the key to understand her prose, “especially those texts that express the grassroot experience and reveal the migrant working life, showing a unique spirit of compassion and a strong grassroot feeling” (Kuang 2016: 6). Therefore, the two kinds of labor are inseparable. The former provides the ultimate reason for discussing the latter, and it is also the fundamental reason why literary circles accept Dagong writers. The latter is the sublimation of the former. Without the former, the latter will be as water without a source and a tree without roots.

30In short, the authenticity of migrant workers’ literary creation comes from their experience of working. Once the experience ceases, the authenticity of migrant workers’ literary creation faces the risk of fading or even disappearing. This is the fundamental dilemma faced by many Dagong writers.

4. Conclusion: the limitation and sublimation of spiritual labor

31From a sociological point of view, we can ask why are there Dagong writers, but not Dagong musicians, or painters? That is to say, among those who work in factories, why are there so few workers who create music or paint? Liu Dong discussed this in The Song of the Pariah. In his opinion, this is mainly because of the advantages of poetry in particular:

This simple literary genre, which is purely composed of rhythmic language, is presented as the art form which is most easily discussed, is least demanding, and is the most difficult to be deprived of. Because of this, it is bound to be presented as the most primitive, direct and popular art form.[…]The migrant workers, who have been thrown out of highbrow art by fate, have no scruple to believe and picked up this art form of free venting (Liu 2005: 22).

32The reason why Dagong writers choose literary creation, especially the spiritual labor of poetry creation, is mainly because of the low cost and low threshold of this genre, which is easy to be mastered. In this regard, the spiritual labor of migrant workers is not arbitrary, but carried out within the limits of their cultural education. After all, for migrant workers who have received free and compulsory education, their familiarity with literature is certainly much higher than that of painting or music.

33To summarize, the two kinds of labor – physical labor and spiritual labor – are closely related. Although apparently the two conflicts with each other, as people reject physical labor and yearn for spiritual labor. In fact, the two can integrate with each other, physical labor provides the premise for spiritual labor, and spiritual labor alleviates the fatigue of physical labor. For Dagong writers, the products of their spiritual labor are closely related to their physical labor. They depict and reflect on the physical labor, so as to receive a spiritual sublimation and transcend the dilemma of physical labor.

34On the structural level, what Dagong writers face is a universal fate, a metaphor of human destiny, so it can gain resonance from readers. Liu Dong points out that wandering is the living condition and destiny of modern people:

In this sense, which one of us is not doing migrant work, who is not migrant worker? […] It stimulates the human’s acute senses, and probes into the great pain of all people at the cost of all their lives, and creates a unique and universal world of representation (Liu 2005: 23).

35This grants Dagong writers with spiritual dignity. To certain extent, it brings all human spiritual dignity.

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Bibliografia

Chen, N.X. 2019, Exploding Records, Xi’an, Taibai Literature and Art Publishing House.

Guo, Y.H., Huang, B.H. 2014, Chinese Characteristics of the world Factory: Sociological Airsacpe of the State of Workers in the New Period, “Chinese Journal of Sociology”, 4: 49-66.

Kuang, M.Y. 2016, Youth on the Assembly Line, Guangzhou, Guangdong People’s publishing house.

Li, L.L. 2016, Dagong Writers: The Construction of Cultural Identity of New Urban Migrants in the Pearl River Delta, Beijing, China Social Sciences Press.

Liu, C. 2019, Poetry as the Way: A Sociological Study of Dagong Poets, Beijing, Social Sciences Academic Press.

Liu, D. 2005, Song of the Pariah, “Reading”, 12: 16-23.

Marx, K. 1963, Theories of Surplus-Value (1905), trans. by E. Burns, Theorien über den Mehrwert, Moscow, Progress Publishers.

Shen, Y. 2006, The Social Transformation and Reformation of Chinese Working Class, “Sociological Studies”, 2: 13-36.

Simmel, G. 2004, The Philosophy of Money (1930), 3rd ed. by D. Frisby, trans. by T. Bottomore and D. Frisby, Philosophie des Geldes, London - New York, Routledge.

Wu, X. 2019, Suspender Skirt, “The Contemporary Worker”, 5: 50.

Zheng, X.Q. 2007a, Iron&plastic factory, “People’s Literature”, 5: 85-91.

Zheng, X.Q. 2007b, Printing Factory, “People’s Literature”, 11: 108-111.

Zheng, X.Q. 2007c, Assembly Line

Zheng, X.Q. 2012, Women Migrant Workers, Guangzhou, Huacheng Publishing House.

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Note

1 As one anonymous reviewer of this paper said, the qualitative feature of the worker’s pain can be shaped by and reflect the nature of the material they have to deal with.

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Lu Wenchao, «On Two Kinds of Labor of Dagong Writers»Rivista di estetica, 79 | 2022, 63-73.

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Lu Wenchao, «On Two Kinds of Labor of Dagong Writers»Rivista di estetica [Online], 79 | 2022, online dal 01 février 2024, consultato il 18 juin 2024. URL: http://0-journals-openedition-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/estetica/14754; DOI: https://0-doi-org.catalogue.libraries.london.ac.uk/10.4000/estetica.14754

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